Archive for the ‘Spot / International News Wire’ Category

Nancy Kulp

Thursday, August 25th, 2016

Wikipedia

Nancy Jane Kulp (August 28, 1921 – February 3, 1991) was an American character actress best known as Miss Jane Hathaway on the popular CBS television series The Beverly Hillbillies.

Contents

Early life

Kulp was born to Marjorie C. (née Snyder) and Robert Tilden Kulp in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. She was their only child. Kulp’s father was a traveling salesman, and her mother was a school teacher and, later, a principal.[4] The family moved from Mifflintown, Pennsylvania, to Dade County, Florida, sometime before 1935.[5]

In 1943 Kulp graduated with a bachelor’s degree in journalism from the Florida State University, which was then known as the Florida State College for Women, and she started pursuing a master’s degree in English and French at the University of Miami. She was a member of the Pi Beta Phi sorority. Early in the 1940s she worked as a feature writer for the Miami Beach Tropics newspaper, writing profiles of celebrities, including Clark Gable and the Duke and Duchess of Windsor.[6][7]

Kulp left the University of Miami in 1944 to volunteer for service in the US Naval Reserve (WAVES) during World War II. While on active duty Ltjg. Kulp received several decorations, including the American Campaign Medal. She left the service in 1946.

Acting career

Kulp moved to Hollywood, California, not long after she married Charles Malcolm Dacus (in April 1951), to work in a studio publicity department, where director George Cukor convinced her that she should work in front of a camera.

She made her film debut as a character actress in 1951 in The Model and the Marriage Broker.[8] She then appeared in other films, including Shane, Sabrina, and A Star is Born. After working in television on The Bob Cummings Show, she returned to movies in Forever, Darling, The Three Faces of Eve, The Parent Trap, Who’s Minding the Store?, and The Aristocats.

Kulp was once described as television’s most homely girl or, as one reviewer put it, possessing the “face of a shriveled balloon, the figure of a string of spaghetti, and the voice of a bullfrog in mating season.” Others described her as tall and prim and praised her comedic skills.[7]

Television appearances

In 1955, Kulp joined the cast of The Bob Cummings Show (Love That Bob) with Bob Cummings, portraying pith-helmeted neighborhood bird watcher Pamela Livingstone.

In 1956, she appeared in the episode “Johnny Bravo” of the ABC/Warner Brothers series Cheyenne, with Clint Walker. Kulp appeared in 1955-1956 as Anastasia in three episodes of the NBC sitcom It’s a Great Life. In 1958, she appeared in Orson Welles’ little known TV series The Fountain of Youth. In 1960, she appeared as Emma St. John in the episode “Kill with Kindness” of the ABC/WB detective series, Bourbon Street Beat, starring Andrew Duggan.

Kulp (center) with Max Baer Jr. and Sharon Tate in The Beverly Hillbillies, 1965

Kulp appeared in one episode of I Love Lucy. In the 1956 episode “Lucy meets the Queen”, Kulp portrayed an English maid, showing Lucy and Ethel how to curtsy properly before the Queen.[9] She also appeared in episodes of The Real McCoys, Perry Mason (“The Case of the Prodigal Parent”, 1958), The Jack Benny Program,[10] 87th Precinct, Pete and Gladys, The Twilight Zone (as Mrs. Gann in “The Fugitive“), and The Outlaws. Kulp played a housekeeper in a pilot for The William Bendix Show, which aired as the 1960-61 season finale of CBS’s Mister Ed under the episode title “Pine Lake Lodge”.

In 1962, she landed her breakout role of Jane Hathaway, the love-starved, bird-watching, perennial spinster on CBS’s The Beverly Hillbillies television series. She remained with the show until its cancellation in 1971. In 1967, she received an Emmy Award nomination for her role.

In 1966, she appeared as Wilhemina Peterson in the film The Night of the Grizzly, starring Clint Walker and Martha Hyer. In 1978, she appeared on The Love Boat in a segment titled “The Kissing Bandit” and she played Aunt Gertrude in a segment titled “America’s Sweetheart”. On April 7, 1989, she played a nun in the Quantum Leap season 1 episode “The Right Hand of God”. Kulp appeared on The Brian Keith Show and Sanford and Son.

She also performed in Broadway productions, including Morning’s at Seven in 1981.

Politics, academia, and retirement

In 1984, after working with the Democratic state committee in her home state of Pennsylvania “on a variety of projects” over a period of years, Kulp ran unopposed as the Democratic nominee for the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania’s 9th congressional district.[11] As an opponent of Republican incumbent, Bud Shuster, in a Republican district, Kulp was the underdog.

Sixty-two years old at the time, Kulp said some people might feel her background as an actress was “frivolous”, but she noted that Ronald Reagan had taken the route from screen to politics and she said anyone who “listens and cares” can do well.[12]

To her dismay, Hillbillies co-star Buddy Ebsen called the Shuster campaign and volunteered to make a radio campaign ad in which he called Kulp “too liberal.”[13] Kulp said of Ebsen, “He’s not the kindly old Jed Clampett that you saw on the show… It’s none of his business and he should have stayed out of it.” She said Ebsen and she “didn’t get along because I found him difficult to work with. But I never would have done something like this to him.” Garnering 59,449 votes, or just 33.6% to Shuster’s 117,203 votes and 66.4%, she lost.[14]

After her defeat, she worked at Juniata College, a private liberal arts college in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, as an artist-in-residence.[15] Later she taught acting.

She subsequently retired, first to a farm in Connecticut and later to Palm Desert, California.

Personal life

Kulp married Charles Malcolm Dacus on April 1, 1951, in Dade County, Florida; they divorced in 1961.[16]

Later in life, Kulp indicated to author Boze Hadleigh in a 1989 interview, that she was a lesbian. “As long as you reproduce my reply word for word, and the question, you may use it…. I’d appreciate it if you’d let me phrase the question. There is more than one way. Here’s how I would ask it: ‘Do you think that opposites attract?’ My own reply would be that I’m the other sort – I find that birds of a feather flock together. That answers your question.”[17]

Death

Kulp was diagnosed with cancer in 1990, for which she received chemotherapy. By 1991, the cancer had spread, and she died on February 3 at a friend’s home in Palm Desert, California.[6][18] Her remains are interred at Westminster Presbyterian Cemetery in Mifflintown, Pennsylvania.[3]

Complete filmography

Neil Patrick Harris

Thursday, August 25th, 2016

Wikipedia

Neil Patrick Harris (born June 15, 1973)[1] is an American actor, producer, singer, comedian, magician, and television host. He is known for playing Barney Stinson in the television comedy series How I Met Your Mother (2005–2014), for which he was nominated for four Emmy Awards, and for his role as the title character in Doogie Howser, M.D. (1989–1993).

He is also known for his role as the title character in Joss Whedon‘s musical Dr. Horrible’s Sing-Along Blog (2008) and a fictional version of himself in the Harold & Kumar film series (2004–2011). He appeared in the films Starship Troopers (1997), Beastly (2011), The Smurfs (2011), The Smurfs 2 (2013) and Gone Girl (2014).

Harris was named as one of Time magazine’s 100 most influential people in 2010.[2] He has hosted the Tony Awards on Broadway in 2009, 2011, 2012 and 2013, for which he won several special class Emmy Awards.[3] He also hosted the Primetime Emmy Awards in 2009 and 2013, and hosted the 87th Academy Awards in 2015, thus making him the first openly gay man to host the Academy Awards.[4] In 2014, he starred in the title role in Hedwig and the Angry Inch on Broadway, for which he won the 2014 Tony Award for Best Leading Actor in a Musical.

Contents

Early life

Neil Patrick Harris interviewed by Emily Expo at the Calgary Expo 2015

Harris was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico[1] and grew up Ruidoso, New Mexico, with his elder brother and their parents, Sheila Gail (née Scott; born 1946) and Ronald Gene Harris (born 1946). His parents were lawyers and also ran a restaurant.[5][6][7][8][9] He attended La Cueva High School in Albuquerque, graduating with high honors in 1991.[10]

Career

Harris at the 2008 Comic Con in San Diego, California

Film

Harris began his career as a child actor and was discovered by playwright Mark Medoff at a drama camp in Las Cruces, New Mexico.[11] Medoff later cast him in the 1988 drama film Clara’s Heart, starring Whoopi Goldberg based on the novel of the same name by Joseph Olshan. Clara’s Heart earned Harris a Golden Globe nomination. The same year, he starred in Purple People Eater, a children’s fantasy.

Harris’ first film role as an adult was 1995’s Animal Room, although he portrayed a teenager. His subsequent film work has included supporting roles in The Next Best Thing, Undercover Brother, and Starship Troopers. Harris plays a fictionalized version of himself in the Harold and Kumar stoner comedy films Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle, Harold & Kumar Escape from Guantanamo Bay and A Very Harold & Kumar 3D Christmas.

In 2010, Harris provided voice acting for the role of the adult Dick Grayson (Nightwing) in the animated film Batman: Under the Red Hood and the beagle Lou in the film Cats & Dogs: The Revenge of Kitty Galore. The same year, he played the lead in the indie comedy The Best and the Brightest.[12] On March 7, 2010, he made a surprise appearance at the 82nd Academy Awards, delivering the opening musical number. He starred in the films The Smurfs (2011) and The Smurfs 2 (2013) and David Fincher‘s Gone Girl (2014) with Ben Affleck.

On February 22, 2015, Harris hosted the 87th Academy Awards; it was his first time hosting the ceremony, and the first time an openly gay man hosted the Academy Awards.[4][13]

Stage

Harris has worked on Broadway in both musical and dramatic roles. He played Tobias Ragg in the 2001 concert performances of Sweeney Todd. In 2002, he performed beside Anne Heche in Proof. In 2003, he took the role of the Emcee in Cabaret alongside Deborah Gibson and Tom Bosley. As a result of his critically acclaimed performance in Cabaret, Harris was named the top-drawing headliner in the role of the Emcee by GuestStarCasting.com, outranking fellow celebrity stars John Stamos and Alan Cumming.[14] In 2004, he performed the dual role of the Balladeer and Lee Harvey Oswald on Broadway in the musical revival of Stephen Sondheim‘s Assassins. He also sang the role of Charles (first played by Anthony Perkins) on the Nonesuch recording of Sondheim’s Evening Primrose, and portrayed Mark Cohen in the 1997 touring company of the musical Rent, a role he mockingly reprised on the January 10, 2009, episode of Saturday Night Live, which he hosted.

In 2010, Harris directed a production of the rock musical Rent at the Hollywood Bowl; he cast his Beastly co-star Vanessa Hudgens as Mimi.[15] In 2011, Harris played the lead role of Bobby in Stephen Sondheim‘s Company with the New York Philharmonic in concert, opposite Patti LuPone and others.[16] The same year, he directed The Expert at the Card Table at Broad Stage’s Edye in Santa Monica, California.[17]

Harris has hosted the Tony Awards four times: the 63rd Tony Awards on June 7, 2009,[18] 65th Tony Awards on June 12, 2011, the 66th Tony Awards on June 10, 2012, and the 67th Tony Awards on June 9, 2013. Only Dame Angela Lansbury, with five ceremonies, has hosted the Tony Awards more times.[19] Hosting the Tony Awards has earned him three Emmy Awards; in 2010, 2012 and 2013 for the 63rd, 65th and 66th respectively.[20]

A week after hosting the Tonys, it was announced that Harris would portray the titular role in the first Broadway production of the rock musical Hedwig and the Angry Inch, which he did from March through August 2014.[21][22]

Television

From 1989, Harris played the title role of a child prodigy doctor in Doogie Howser, M.D., for which he was nominated for a Golden Globe. After the show’s four-season run ended in 1993, Harris played a number of guest roles on television series, including Murder She Wrote. From 1999 to 2000, he starred with Tony Shalhoub in the NBC sitcom Stark Raving Mad, which lasted 22 episodes. He has played lead roles in a number of made-for-television features including Snowbound: The Jim and Jennifer Stolpa Story in 1994, My Ántonia in 1995, The Christmas Wish in 1998, Joan of Arc in 1999, The Wedding Dress in 2001 and The Christmas Blessing in 2005.

From 2005 to 2014, Harris played Barney Stinson, a serial womanizer, in the CBS ensemble sitcom How I Met Your Mother. The role earned him Emmy nominations every year from 2007 to 2010.

In 2008, Harris guest-starred on Sesame Street as the Sesame Street Fairy Shoe Person.[23][24][25] In 2009, he hosted the 7th Annual TV Land Awards and appeared as a guest judge on Season 9 of American Idol.[26]

Harris hosted the 61st Primetime Emmy Awards on September 20, 2009. On August 21, 2010, he won two Emmy Awards at the Creative Arts Emmy Awards ceremony, one of which was for his guest performance in the television series Glee.[27] Harris hosted the 65th Primetime Emmy Awards on September 22, 2013, marking his second time hosting the event.[20][28][29]

After a preview at the San Diego Comic-Con, a musical episode of Batman: The Brave and the Bold featuring Harris as the villainous Music Meister premiered on October 23, 2009 on Cartoon Network. As a character who could make anyone do his bidding by singing, he spent most of the episode singing several original songs.[30]

In 2010, Harris filmed a pilot episode for an American adaptation of the British game show The Cube as host, though it was not picked up to series.[31]

In 2014, Harris turned down the chance to replace David Letterman as host of the Late Show on CBS, stating that he feared he would get bored of the repetition that hosting a nightly talk show would entail. He also rejected the suggestion of replacing Craig Ferguson as host of The Late Late Show on the same grounds.[32]

On September 15, 2015, Best Time Ever with Neil Patrick Harris, a live variety series hosted by Harris on NBC, made its debut, but was cancelled after an eight episode run.

On January 15, 2016 Netflix cast Harris in their new show A Series of Unfortunate Events, for which he will star as Count Olaf.[33]

Magic

Harris is a fan of magic, like his character on How I Met Your Mother. His character in American Horror Story: Freak Show was also a magician. Harris’ Glee character performed magic as well. He serves as the President of the Board of Directors of Hollywood’s Magic Castle.[34] Harris won the Tannen’s Magic Louis Award in 2006 and hosted the 2008 World Magic Awards on October 11, 2008. Additionally, Harris and partner David Burtka were guests of honor for a Top Chef Masters episode which took place at the Magic Castle. Harris also performed magic in his Emmy-winning performance on Glee.

Other media

In 2007, Harris worked with Mike Nelson on an audio commentary for RiffTrax. The two “riffed” on the film Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory. Harris is a big fan of the cult TV series Nelson worked on, Mystery Science Theater 3000. Harris was interviewed for a 1992 Comedy Central special This Is MST3K hosted by Penn Jillette about the series and its fans.[35] In 2008, Harris played the title role in Joss Whedon‘s musical web series Dr. Horrible’s Sing-Along Blog alongside Nathan Fillion and Felicia Day. The first episode of the series debuted on July 15, 2008.[36] He has also provided his voice for the Disney California Adventure Park attraction California Screamin’.[37]

On December 11, 2010, Harris hosted the Spike Video Game Awards.[38]

Personal life

Harris with his husband David Burtka at his ceremony to receive a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on September 15, 2011

Harris confirmed that he is gay on November 4, 2006 by saying, “I am happy to dispel any rumors or misconceptions and am quite proud to say that I am a very content gay man living my life to the fullest and feel most fortunate to be working with wonderful people in the business I love.”[39]

Harris is an agnostic.[40]

Harris attended the Emmy Awards in September 2007 with his fiancé David Burtka, later confirming the relationship. In an interview on The Ellen DeGeneres Show,[41] Harris said his relationship with Burtka began in 2004. On August 14, 2010, Harris announced that he and Burtka were expecting twins via a surrogate mother.[42][43] Their son, Gideon Scott, and daughter, Harper Grace, were born on October 12, 2010.[44][45]

Following the passage of the Marriage Equality Act in New York on June 24, 2011, Harris and Burtka announced their engagement via Twitter,[46] stating that they had proposed to each other five years earlier but kept the engagement secret until same-sex marriage became legal.[47] On September 8, 2014, Harris announced on his Twitter page that David Burtka and he were married over the weekend in Italy.[48][49][50][51] Pamela Fryman, the long-time director of How I Met Your Mother, officiated the wedding, while Elton John performed at the reception.[52][53][54]

Harris and Burtka bought a townhouse on Fifth Avenue in Harlem in 2013, the Upper Manhattan, New York City neighborhood where they had been living for many years previously.[55]

Discography

Cast recordings

Year Album title Notes
2001 Evening Primrose Studio Cast
2004 Assassins Revival Cast Recording
2006 Wall to Wall: Stephen Sondheim Concert Cast
2008 Dr. Horrible’s Sing-Along Blog Original Cast Recording
2009 Batman: The Brave and the Bold – Mayhem of the Music Meister Original Cast Recording
2014 Hedwig and the Angry Inch Original Broadway Cast Recording

Singles

Year Single Peak chart positions Sales Album
AUS CAN IRE UK US
2010 Nothing Suits Me Like a Suit 113 76 50 How I Met Your Mother season 5
Dream On” (featuring Matthew Morrison) 91 24 44 47 26 84,000 (US)[56] Glee: The Music, Volume 3 Showstoppers

Filmography

Film

Year Title Role Notes
1988 Clara’s Heart David Hart
1988 Purple People Eater Billy Johnson
1995 Animal Room Arnold Mosk
1997 Starship Troopers Carl Jenkins
1998 The Proposition Roger Martin
2000 The Next Best Thing David
2002 The Mesmerist Benjamin
2002 Undercover Brother Lance
2004 Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle Neil Patrick Harris
2008 Harold & Kumar Escape from Guantanamo Bay Neil Patrick Harris
2008 Beyond All Boundaries 1st Lt. David Hettema (voice) Documentary
2008 Justice League: The New Frontier Barry Allen/The Flash (voice) Direct-to-DVD
2009 Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs Steve (voice)
2010 Cats & Dogs: The Revenge of Kitty Galore Lou the Beagle (voice)
2010 The Best and the Brightest Jeff
2010 Batman: Under the Red Hood Dick Grayson/Nightwing (voice) Direct-to-DVD[57]
2011 Beastly Will Fratalli
2011 The Smurfs Patrick Winslow
2011 A Very Harold & Kumar 3D Christmas Neil Patrick Harris
2011 The Muppets Himself Cameo
2012 American Reunion Celebrity Dance-Off Host Cameo
2013 The Smurfs 2 Patrick Winslow
2013 Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs 2 Steve the Monkey (voice)
2014 A Million Ways to Die in the West Foy
2014 Gone Girl Desi Collings
2017 Downsizing Filming

Television

Year Title Role Notes
1988 Too Good to Be True Danny Harland Television film
1989 Hallmark Hall of Fame Lonnie Tibbetts Episode: “Home Fires Burning”
1989 B.L. Stryker Buder Campbell Episode: “Blues for Buder”
1989 Cold Sassy Tree Will Tweedy/Narrator Television film
1989 Home Fires Burning Lonnie Tibbits Television film
1989–1993 Doogie Howser, M.D. Douglas “Doogie” Howser 97 episodes
1990 The Earth Day Special[58] Doogie Howser Television film
1991 Stranger in the Family Steve Thompson Television film
1991 Blossom The “Charming” Derek Slade Episode: “Blossom – A Rockumentary”
1991 The Simpsons Himself as Bart Simpson (voice) Episode: “Bart the Murderer
1992 Roseanne Dr. Doogie Howser Episode: “Less Is More”
1992 Captain Planet and the Planeteers Todd Andrews (voice) Episode: “A Formula for Hate”
1992 Capitol Critters Max (voice) 13 episodes
1993 Quantum Leap Mike Hammond Episode: “Return of the Evil Leaper – October 8, 1956”
1993 Murder, She Wrote Tommy Remsen Episode: “Lone Witness”
1993 A Family Torn Apart Brian Hannigan Television film
1994 Snowbound: The Jim and Jennifer Stolpa Story Jim Stolpa Television film
1995 The Man in the Attic Edward Broder Television film
1995 Not Our Son Paul Kenneth Keller Television film
1995 My Antonia Jimmy Burden Television film
1995 Legacy of Sin: The William Coit Story William Coit Television film
1996 The Outer Limits Howie Morrison Episode: “From Within
1997 Homicide: Life on the Street Alan Schack Episode: “Valentine’s Day”
1998 The Christmas Wish Will Martin Television film
1999 Joan of Arc The Dauphin 2 episodes
1999–2000 Stark Raving Mad Henry McNeeley 22 episodes
2000 Will & Grace Bill Episode: “Girls, Interrupted”
2001 Static Shock Johnny Morrow/Replay (voice) Episode: “Replay”
2001 Son of the Beach Loverboy Episode: “Queefer Madness”
2001 The Legend of Tarzan Moyo (voice) Episode: “Tarzan and the Challenger”
2001 Ed Joe Baxter Episode: “Replacements”
2001 The Wedding Dress Travis Cleveland Television film
2002 Touched by an Angel Jonas Episode: “The Princeless Bride”
2002 Justice League Ray Thompson (voice) 2 episodes
2003 Boomtown Peter Corman Episode: “Monster’s Brawl”
2003 Spider-Man: The New Animated Series Peter Parker/Spider-Man (voice) 13 episodes
2004 Law & Order: Criminal Intent John Tagman Episode: “Want”
2005 Numb3rs Ethan Burdick Episode: “Prime Suspect”
2005 Jack & Bobby Prof. Preston Phelps Episode: “Querida Grace”
2005 The Christmas Blessing Nathan Andrews Television film
2005–2014 How I Met Your Mother Barney Stinson 208 episodes; directed episode: “Jenkins
2006 Me, Eloise (voice) Episode: “Eloise Goes to School”
2007–2009 Family Guy Barney Stinson (voice) 2 episodes
2008 Sesame Street The Fairy Shoeperson Episode: “Telly’s New Shoes”
2009 Saturday Night Live Himself (host) Episode: “Neil Patrick Harris/ Taylor Swift
2009 Batman: The Brave and the Bold The Music Meister (voice) Episode: “Mayhem of the Music Meister!
2009 Carrie Underwood: An All-Star Holiday Special Ace (voice) Television film
2009–2012 Robot Chicken Various roles (voice) 3 episodes
2009 7th Annual TV Land Awards Himself (host) Television special
2009 63rd Tony Awards Himself (host) Television special
2009 61st Primetime Emmy Awards Himself (host) Television special
2009 Yes, Virginia Dr. Philip O’Hanlon (voice) Television special
2010 Glee Bryan Ryan Episode: “Dream On
2010–2013 The Penguins of Madagascar Dr. Blowhole (voice) 3 episodes
2010 2010 Spike Video Game Awards Himself (host) Television special
2011 Take Two with Phineas and Ferb Himself “Neil Patrick Harris” (Season 1, Episode 7)
2011 Brain Games Narrator (voice) 3 episodes
2011–2013 Adventure Time Prince Gumball (voice) 2 episodes
2011 65th Tony Awards Himself (host) Television special
2012 66th Tony Awards Himself (host) Television special
2013 67th Tony Awards Himself (host) Television special
2013 65th Primetime Emmy Awards Himself (host) Television special
2013 Disney Parks Christmas Day Parade Himself (host) Television special
2014 Under the Gunn Himself (guest judge) Episode: “Finale”
2014 RuPaul’s Drag Race Himself (guest judge) Episode: “Drag My Wedding”
2015 American Horror Story: Freak Show Chester Creb 2 episodes
2015 87th Academy Awards Himself (host) Television special
2015 Ant and Dec’s Saturday Night Takeaway Himself (guest announcer) 1 episode
2015 America’s Got Talent Himself (guest judge) 1 episode
2015 Best Time Ever with Neil Patrick Harris Himself (host) 8 episodes; also writer and executive producer
2016 A Series of Unfortunate Events Count Olaf Main role

Theater

Year Title Role Notes
1997 Rent Mark Cohen National Tour
1998 Romeo and Juliet Romeo Montague Old Globe Theatre
2001 Sweeney Todd Tobias Ragg San Francisco Symphony Orchestra concert version
2002 Proof Hal Manhattan Theatre Club
2003 Cabaret Emcee Stephen Sondheim Theatre
2004 The Paris Letter Young Anton / Burt Sarris Roundabout Theatre
2004 Assassins Lee Harvey Oswald / The Balladeer Roundabout Theatre
2005 Tick, Tick… BOOM! Jon Menier Chocolate Factory
2006 All My Sons Chris Keller Geffen Playhouse
2006 Amadeus Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Hollywood Bowl
2010 Rent N/A Directed
Hollywood Bowl
2011 Company Robert New York Philharmonic Concert Version
2011 A Snow White Christmas The Magic Mirror El Portal Theater
2014 Nothing to Hide[59] N/A Director
Romulus Linney Courtyard Theatre
2014 Hedwig and the Angry Inch Hedwig Belasco Theatre

Web

Year Title Role Notes
2008 Dr. Horrible’s Sing-Along Blog Dr. Horrible/Billy 3 episodes
2008 Prop 8: The Musical A Very Smart Fellow Short film
2012 Neil’s Puppet Dreams Neil Patrick Harris 7 episodes; also co-creator, writer and executive producer

Video games

Year Title Role
2008 Saints Row 2 Veteran Child (voice)
2009 Eat Lead: The Return of Matt Hazard Wallace “Wally” Wellesley (voice)
2010 Rock of the Dead Unnamed character (voice)
2010 Spider-Man: Shattered Dimensions Peter Parker/Spider-Man (voice)
2013 Saints Row IV Veteran Child (voice)[60]

Bibliography

  • Harris, Neil Patrick (2014). Neil Patrick Harris: Choose Your Own Autobiography. Crown Archetype. ISBN 978-0385346993.

Awards and nominations

Year Award Category Title Result
1989 Young Artist Award Best Leading Young Actor in a Feature Film Clara’s Heart Nominated
Golden Globe Award Best Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role – Motion Picture Nominated
1990 Young Artist Award Best Young Actor Starring in a Television Series Doogie Howser, M.D. Won
People’s Choice Award Favorite Male Performer in a New TV Series Won
Favorite Male TV Performer Nominated
Viewers for Quality Television Award Best Actor in a Quality Comedy Series Nominated
1991 Young Artist Award Best Young Actor Starring in a Television Series Won
1992 Won
Golden Globe Award Best Actor – Television Series Musical or Comedy Nominated
2007 Teen Choice Award Choice TV Actor: Comedy How I Met Your Mother Nominated
Primetime Emmy Award Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series Nominated
2008 People’s Choice Award Favorite Scene Stealing Star Nominated
Teen Choice Award Choice TV Actor: Comedy Nominated
Primetime Emmy Award Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series Nominated
2009 Golden Globe Award Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film Nominated
TCA Award Individual Achievement in Comedy Nominated
Teen Choice Award Choice TV Actor: Comedy Nominated
Primetime Emmy Award Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series Nominated
Streamy Award Best Male Actor in a Comedy Web Series Dr. Horrible’s Sing-Along Blog Won
Satellite Award Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film How I Met Your Mother Nominated
2010 Golden Globe Award Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film Nominated
Primetime Emmy Award Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series Nominated
Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Series Glee Won
Outstanding Special Class Program 63rd Tony Awards Won
Spike Video Game Award Best Performance by a Human Male Spider-Man: Shattered Dimensions Won
Satellite Award Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film How I Met Your Mother Nominated
2011 People’s Choice Award Favorite TV Comedy Actor Won
Favorite TV Guest Star Glee Nominated
Critics’ Choice Television Award Best Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series How I Met Your Mother Won
Satellite Award Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film How I Met Your Mother Nominated
2012 People’s Choice Award Favorite TV Comedy Actor Won
TV Guide Award Favorite Actor Nominated
Teen Choice Award Choice TV Actor: Comedy Nominated
Primetime Emmy Award Outstanding Special Class Program 65th Tony Awards Won
2013 66th Tony Awards Won
Webby Award Best Comedy: Long Form or Series Neil’s Puppet Dreams Nominated
People’s Choice Award Favorite TV Comedy Actor How I Met Your Mother Nominated
2014 Nominated
Favorite TV Bromance Nominated
Nickelodeon Kids’ Choice Award Favorite Movie Actor The Smurfs 2 Nominated
Drama Desk Award Outstanding Actor in a Musical Hedwig and the Angry Inch Won
Drama League Award Distinguished Performance Won
Outer Critics Circle Award Outstanding Actor in a Musical Nominated
Daytime Emmy Award Outstanding Special Class Special Disney Parks Christmas Day Parade Nominated
Hasty Pudding Theatricals Hasty Pudding Man of the Year Won
Tony Award Best Actor in a Musical Hedwig and the Angry Inch Won
Dorian Award TV Musical Performance of the Year 67th Tony Awards Nominated
Primetime Emmy Award Outstanding Special Class Program Nominated
2015 Alliance of Women Film Journalists Award Best Depiction of Nudity, Sexuality, or Seduction Gone Girl Nominated
Grammy Award Best Musical Theater Album Hedwig and the Angry Inch Nominated
Saturn Award Best Guest Performance in a Television Series American Horror Story: Freak Show Nominated

References

  1. “Neil Patrick Harris profile”. TVGuide.com. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  2. “The 2010 Time 100”. Time. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
  3. Mark Kennedy, AP Drama Writer (June 10, 2013). “Neil Patrick Harris once again proves a Tony Awards host with ‘fantastic instincts'”. Minneapolis Star Tribune. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  4. Staff. “Neil Patrick Harris wows as Oscars host”. Mobi.iafrica.com. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
  5. “Neil Patrick Harris: Choose Your Own Autobiography by Neil Patrick Harris – Excerpt”. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
  6. Keveney, Bill (September 13, 2009). “Host Neil Patrick Harris gives Emmys a bit of awesomeness”. USA Today. Retrieved September 21, 2009.
  7. Alpha Chi Omega” Greek Life, uagreeks.uark.edu; accessed November 5, 2015.
  8. “How Neil Patrick Harris Met Himself”. Rolling Stone. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
  9. Finding Your Roots, February 23, 2016, PBS
  10. Belcher, David (April 18, 2004). “Killer parts: Albuquerque’s Neil Patrick Harris is back on Broadway with two roles in controversial ‘Assassins'”, Albuquerque Journal. pg. F1.
  11. “Anytime with Bob Kushell feat. Neil Patrick Harris”. Anytime with Bob Kushell. Season 1. Episode 3. January 1, 2009.
  12. “Neil Patrick Harris Lands Two Film Roles”. TV Guide. Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  13. Gray, Tim (October 15, 2014). “Neil Patrick Harris to Host the Oscars”. Variety. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  14. Preston Scott Reed (September 2, 2005). “Neil Patrick Harris and John Stamos Lead Emcee Rankings”. Dime-Co. Retrieved September 5, 2007.
  15. Wada, Karen (April 9, 2010). “Vanessa Hudgens to star in Rent at the Hollywood Bowl this summer”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
  16. “Rialto Chatter: Patti LuPone to Join Neil Patrick Harris in NY Philharmonic’s Company in April?”. January 13, 2011.
  17. McNulty, Charles (July 17, 2011). “Theater review: The Expert at the Card Table at the Broad Stage’s Edye”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
  18. Littleton, Cynthia (July 1, 2009). “Neil Patrick Harris Lands Hopping to Emmys”. Variety. Retrieved July 4, 2009.
  19. “Neil Patrick Harris Returning As Tony Awards Host”. NY1. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  20. Keveney, Bill (September 20, 2013). “Neil Patrick Harris is happy to host the Emmys”. USA TODAY.
  21. “Neil Patrick Harris to Star in ‘Hedwig and the Angry Inch’ on Broadway”. Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. June 17, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
  22. The Broadway League. “Hedwig and the Angry Inch – IBDB: The official source for Broadway Information”. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
  23. Jensen, Michael (July 21, 2008). “TCA Weekend Update: Neil Patrick Harris, “The Starter Wife” and more!”. Retrieved November 28, 2009.
  24. “Sesame Street Enters 39th Season”. Sesame Workshop. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
  25. Graham, Mark (July 23, 2008). “NPH Sweeps The Clouds Away As The Shoe Fairy On Sesame Street. Defamer. Retrieved September 5, 2007.
  26. Martin, Denise (August 25, 2009). “Neil Patrick Harris signs on to guest judge American Idol. Los Angeles Times blogs. Retrieved September 19, 2009.
  27. “Dream On”. Glee. Series 1. Episode 19. May 18, 2010. Fox. Retrieved May 19, 2010.
  28. “65th Primetime Emmy Awards (2013)”. Archive of American Television.
  29. “Emmys: Neil Patrick Harris Explains In Memoriam Changes”. Access Hollywood. September 20, 2013.
  30. Staff (October 23, 2009). “Neil Patrick Harris is on Batman tonight (and he sings!)”. TV Squad. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
  31. Adalian, Josef (28 January 2010). “Neil Patrick Harris Steps Into ‘The Cube’ for CBS”. The Wrap. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  32. Randee Dawn (May 15, 2014). “Neil Patrick Harris turned down ‘Late Show’ job, fearing boredom”. Today Show. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
  33. Borys Kit,Lesley Goldberg (January 15, 2016). “Neil Patrick Harris to Star in Netflix’s ‘A Series of Unfortunate Events’ as Showrunner Exits”. The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  34. “The Academy of Magical Arts Board of Directors and Board of Trustees”. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
  35. “Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory”. RiffTrax. Retrieved July 30, 2008.
  36. “Joss Whedon Interview: The Web Has Been Wonderful For “Horrible””. Tubefilter. July 15, 2008. Retrieved July 15, 2008.
  37. “Hey, That Sounds Like Neil Patrick Harris”. Disney Parks blogsite. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
  38. “Neil Patrick Harris To Host Spike TV’s 2010 “Video Game Awards””. Spike Press Center. December 20, 2010.
  39. “Exclusive: Neil Patrick Harris tells People He is Gay”. People. November 3, 2006. Retrieved March 24, 2008.
  40. Rothman, Michael. “‘How I Met Your Mother’ Star Neil Patrick Harris Secretly Marries David Burtka”. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  41. Thomson, Katherine (September 13, 2007). “Watch: Neil Patrick Harris Tells Ellen About Going To The Emmys Since Coming Out”. The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 24, 2008.
  42. Neil Patrick Harris [ActuallyNPH] (August 16, 2010). “So, get this: David and I are expecting twins this fall. We’re super excited/‌nervous/‌thrilled. Hoping the press can respect our privacy…” (Tweet). Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  43. Hartenstein, Meena (August 15, 2010). “Neil Patrick Harris to be dad to twins with fiancé David Burtka, actor announces on Twitter”. New York Daily News. Retrieved August 16, 2010.
  44. Neil Patrick Harris [ActuallyNPH] (October 15, 2010). “Babies!! On 10/12, Gideon Scott and Harper Grace entered the Burtka-Harris fold. All of us are happy, healthy, tired, and a little pukey.” (Tweet).
  45. “Neil Patrick Harris Welcomes ‘Happy, Healthy’ Twins”. People. October 15, 2010. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
  46. June 25, 2011 [ActuallyNPH] (March 4, 2012). “David and I did propose to each other, but over five years ago! We’ve been wearing engagement rings for ages, waiting for an available date.” (Tweet).
  47. “Neil Patrick Harris announces secret engagement”. Digital Spy. June 25, 2011. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  48. September 8, 2014 [ActuallyNPH] (March 4, 2012). “Guess what? @DavidBurtka and I got married over the weekend. In Italy. Yup, we put the ‘n’ and ‘d’ in ‘husband’. pic.twitter.com/R09ibF41rt” (Tweet).
  49. “They’re married! Neil Patrick Harris weds partner of 10 years David Burtka during intimate ceremony in Italy”. Dailymail.
  50. “Neil Patrick Harris dishes about his wedding day”. CBS News.
  51. “Neil Patrick Harris Marries David Burtka”. People. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
  52. Leonard, Elizabeth (September 8, 2014). “Neil Patrick Harris Marries David Burtka”. People. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
  53. Spero, Jesse (September 8, 2014). “Neil Patrick Harris & David Burtka Wed In Italy”. Access Hollywood. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
  54. Bueno, Antoinette (September 8, 2014). “Neil Patrick Harris Marries David Burtka”. ET Online. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
  55. Jennifer Gould Keil. “Neil Patrick Harris and fiancé purchase stunning Fifth Ave. townhouse”. New York Post. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
  56. Caulfield, Keith (May 26, 2010). “‘Glee’ Stops the Show at No. 1, Stones Come in Second On Billboard 200”. Billboard. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  57. “New Batman DVD to peek out from ‘Under the Red Hood'”. Latimes. February 9, 2010. Retrieved May 19, 2010.
  58. A Matter of Time: The Unauthorized Back to the Future Lexicon Page 125
  59. Champion, Lindsay. “Magic Extravaganza Nothing to Hide Headed Off-Broadway, Directed by Neil Patrick Harris”. Broadway.com. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  60. “Saints Row”. Retrieved November 13, 2014.

Kirsten Vangsness

Thursday, August 25th, 2016

Wikipedia

Kirsten Simone Vangsness (born July 7, 1972)[1] is an American actress and writer. She currently stars as FBI Technical Analyst Penelope Garcia on the CBS drama series Criminal Minds. She portrayed the same character on the spin-off series Criminal Minds: Suspect Behavior.[2]

Contents

Early life

Vangsness was born in Pasadena, California, the daughter of Errol Leroy Vangsness (born 1938 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin) and his wife Barbara Mary (née Marconi; born 1942 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). Her paternal great-grandparents were Norwegian,[3] with ancestry from Bergen, Gol, and Oslo.[4] She was raised in Porterville, California, and later moved to Cerritos, California. She graduated from Cerritos High School in June 1990 and attended Cypress College.[5] She later graduated from California State University, Fullerton in June 1995.

Career

Acting

Vangsness got her first big break in the theatre, where she won several awards, including the 15 Minutes of Female Best Actress Award, the Los Angeles Drama Critics Award for Best Emerging Comic Actress, and the Golden Betty Award.

Writing

Vangsness’ work has been published in the Los Angeles Times. Since 2014, Vangsness has co-written two episodes of Criminal Minds. In 2014 she co-wrote “Nelson’s Sparrow” with Executive Producer, Erica Messer[6] and in 2015 she co-wrote “A Beautiful Disaster” once again with Messer.[7]

Personal life

Vangsness says that she is “not as queer as a unicorn singing Madonna“.[8] She began dating film and television editor Melanie Goldstein in 2006.[9][10][11] They were engaged, but separated in 2013.

In April 2015, she revealed on smashinginterviews.com that she had entered into a relationship with a new boyfriend and was examining that aspect of her sexuality. In November 2015, it was reported that she was engaged to her boyfriend, actor and writer Keith Hanson.[12]

Filmography

Film

Year Title Role Notes
1998 Sometimes Santa’s Gotta Get Whacked Tooth Fairy Short film
2006 A-List Blue
2008 Tranny McGuyver TV News Reporter Short film
2009 Scream of the Bikini Interior Decorator
2010 In My Sleep Madge
2011 Sarina’s Song Party Guest Short film
2011 The Chicago 8 Sketch Artist
2012 Remember to Breathe Vocals for Young Alice Short film
2015 Kill Me, Deadly Mona Livingston
2016 Axis TBA Pre–production

Television

Year Title Role Notes
2004 Phil of the Future Veronica Episode: “Age Before Beauty”
2004 LAX Ticket Agent / Stephanie 3 episodes
2005–present Criminal Minds Penelope Garcia Main Cast; 253 episodes
2010 Vampire Mob Laura Anderson
2010–2012 Pretty the Series Meredith Champagne 14 episodes
2011 Criminal Minds: Suspect Behavior Penelope Garcia Main Cast; 13 episodes
2011 Second City This Week Herself 1 episode
2011–2013 Good Job, Thanks! Therapist 2 episodes
2016 Criminal Minds: Beyond Borders Penelope Garcia Special Guest; 1 episode

References

  1. Vangsness, Kirsten (2007-07-24). “Kirstens Blog”. CBS. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2007-10-07.
  2. “Criminal Minds’ Kirsten Vangsness Joins Spin-Off as a Series Regular”. TVGuide.com.
  3. Family tree by Vangsness’ father
  4. “Kirsten Simone Vangsness ancestry profile”. Geni.com.
  5. Cypress College Public Information Office (2012-05-04). “Cypress College @Cypress Newsletter” (PDF).
  6. “CRIMINAL MINDS Season 10 – 1013. Nelson’s Sparrow – Press Release”. Criminal Minds Round Table.
  7. “CRIMINAL MINDS Season 11 – 1118. A Beautiful Disaster – Press Release”. Criminal Minds Round Table.
  8. Anderson-Minshall, Diane (November 2011). “The Purple Unicorn”. The Advocate: 42.
  9. Melanie Goldstein at the Internet Movie Database
  10. “Untitled”. Criminal Minds Fanatic. 2009-09-22. Retrieved 2009-11-12.
  11. Waldon, Dave (2008-09-23). “Kirsten Vangsness Thrives on “Criminal Minds””. AfterEllen.com. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
  12. Nicole Sands (November 23, 2015). Criminal Minds Star Kirsten Vangsness Is Engaged: ‘He’s the Perfect Partner'”. People.

Cynthia Nixon

Thursday, August 25th, 2016

Wikipedia

Cynthia Ellen Nixon (born April 9, 1966) is an American actress. She is known for her portrayal of Miranda Hobbes in the HBO series, Sex and the City (1998–2004), for which she won the 2004 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series. She reprised the role in the films Sex and the City (2008) and Sex and the City 2 (2010). Other film appearances include: Amadeus (1984), The Pelican Brief (1993), Little Manhattan (2005), 5 Flights Up (2014), James White (2015), and playing Emily Dickinson in A Quiet Passion (2016).

Nixon made her Broadway debut in the 1980 revival of The Philadelphia Story. Other Broadway credits include: The Real Thing (1983), Hurlyburly (1983), Indiscretions (1995), The Women (2001) and Wit (2012). She won the 2006 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for Rabbit Hole. On television, she played Eleanor Roosevelt in Warm Springs (2005), won the 2008 Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series for Law and Order: Special Victims Unit (2007), and played Michele Davis in Too Big to Fail (2011). She also won the 2009 Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for An Inconvenient Truth. She is set to play Nancy Reagan in the 2016 television film Killing Reagan.

Contents

Early life

Nixon was born in New York City, New York, the daughter of Anne Elizabeth (née Knoll; 1930–2012),[1] originally from Chicago, Illinois, and Walter E. Nixon, Jr., a radio journalist from Texas.[2][3] She graduated from Hunter College High School and attended Barnard College.[4][5] In the spring of 1986, she studied abroad with Semester at Sea.[6]

Career

Early career

Nixon’s first onscreen appearance was as an imposter on To Tell the Truth, where her mother worked.[7] She began acting at age 12 as the object of a wealthy school mate’s crush in The Seven Wishes of a Rich Kid, a 1979 ABC Afterschool Special.[8] She made her feature debut co-starring with Kristy McNichol and Tatum O’Neal in Little Darlings (1980). She made her Broadway debut as Dinah Lord in a 1980 revival of The Philadelphia Story.[7] Alternating between film, TV and stage, she did projects like the 1982 ABC movie My Body, My Child, the features Prince of the City (1981) and I Am the Cheese (1983), and the 1982 Off-Broadway productions of John Guare‘s Lydie Breeze.

In 1984, while a freshman at Barnard College, Nixon made theatrical history by simultaneously appearing in two hit Broadway plays directed by Mike Nichols.[5] These were The Real Thing, where Nixon played the daughter of Jeremy Irons and Christine Baranski; and Hurlyburly, where she played a young woman who encounters sleazy Hollywood executives.[9] The two theaters were just two blocks apart and Nixon’s roles were both short, so she could run from one to the other.[9] Onscreen, she played the role of Salieri’s maid/spy, Lorl, in Amadeus (1984). In 1985, she appeared alongside Jeff Daniels in Lanford Wilson‘s Lemon Sky at Second Stage Theatre.[10]

She landed her first major supporting role in a movie as an intelligent teenager who aids her boyfriend (Christopher Collet) in building a nuclear bomb in Marshall Brickman‘s The Manhattan Project (1986).[11] Nixon was part of the cast of the NBC miniseries The Murder of Mary Phagan (NBC, 1988) starring Jack Lemmon and Kevin Spacey, and portrayed the daughter of a presidential candidate (Michael Murphy) in Tanner ’88 (1988), Robert Altman‘s political satire for HBO. She reprised the role for the 2004 sequel Tanner on Tanner.

1990s

Nixon at the Berlin premiere of Sex and the City: The Movie, 2008

On stage, Nixon portrayed Juliet in a 1988 New York Shakespeare Festival production of Romeo and Juliet,[12] and acted in the workshop production of Wendy Wasserstein‘s Pulitzer Prize-winning The Heidi Chronicles,[13] playing several characters after it came to Broadway in 1989. She was the guest star in the second episode of the long running NBC television series Law & Order. She played the role of an agoraphobic woman in a February 1993 episode of Murder, She Wrote titled, “Threshold of Fear.” She replaced Marcia Gay Harden as Harper Pitt in Tony Kushner‘s Angels in America (1994),[14] received a Tony nomination for her performance in Indiscretions (Les Parents Terribles) (1996, her sixth Broadway show) and,[15] though she originally lost the part to another actress, eventually took over the role of Lala Levy in the Tony-winning The Last Night of Ballyhoo (1997).

Nixon was a founding member of the theatrical troupe The Drama Dept.,[16] which included Sarah Jessica Parker, Dylan Baker, John Cameron Mitchell and Billy Crudup among its actors, appearing in the group’s productions of Kingdom on Earth (1996), June Moon and As Bees in Honey Drown (both 1997), Hope is the Thing with Feathers (1998), and The Country Club (1999).

Nixon has contributed supporting performances to Addams Family Values (1993), Baby’s Day Out (1994), Marvin’s Room (1996) and The Out-of-Towners (1999).

Stardom

She raised her profile significantly as one of the four regulars on HBO‘s successful comedy Sex and the City (1998–2004), as the lawyer Miranda Hobbes. Nixon received three Emmy Award nominations for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series (2002, 2003, 2004), winning the award in 2004, for the show’s final season.[17]

Nixon, John Hurt and Swoosie Kurtz at the premiere of An Englishman in New York, 2009

The immense popularity of the series led Nixon to enjoy her first leading role in a feature, playing a video artist who falls in love, despite her best efforts to avoid commitment, with a bisexual actor who just happens to be dating a gay man (her best friend) in Advice from a Caterpillar (2000), as well as starring opposite Scott Bakula in the holiday television movie Papa’s Angels (2000). In 2002, she also landed a role in the indie comedy Igby Goes Down, and her turn in the theatrical production of Clare Boothe Luce‘s play The Women was captured for PBSStage on Screen series.

Post-Sex in the City, Nixon made a guest appearance on ER in 2005, as a mother who undergoes a tricky procedure to lessen the effects of a debilitating stroke. She followed up with a turn as Eleanor Roosevelt for HBO’s Warm Springs (2005), which chronicled Franklin Delano Roosevelt‘s quest for a miracle cure for his polio. Nixon earned an Emmy nomination as Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie for her performance.[17] In December 2005, she appeared in the Fox TV series House in the episode “Deception“, as a patient who suffers a seizure.

In 2006, she appeared in David Lindsay-Abaire‘s Pulitzer Prize-winning drama Rabbit Hole in a Manhattan Theatre Club production,[18] and won the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role (Play). (This part was later played by Nicole Kidman in the movie adaptation of the play.) In 2008, she revived her role as Miranda Hobbes in the Sex and the City feature film, directed by HBO executive producer Michael Patrick King and co-starring the cast of the original series.[19] Also in 2008, she won an Emmy for her guest appearance in an episode of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, portraying a woman pretending to have dissociative identity disorder.[17] In 2008, Nixon made a brief uncredited cameo in the comedy Forgetting Sarah Marshall. She appears in the background when Jason Segel‘s character mimics characters from Sex in the City at a bar.

In 2009, Nixon won the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album along with Beau Bridges and Blair Underwood for the album An Inconvenient Truth (Al Gore).[20]

2010s

In March 2010, Nixon received the Vito Russo Award at the GLAAD Media Awards. The award is presented to an openly LGBT media professional “who has made a significant difference in promoting equality for the LGBT community”. It was announced in June 2010 that Nixon would appear in four episodes of the Showtime series The Big C.[21]

Nixon in 2013

Nixon appeared in a Law & Order: Criminal Intent episode based on the problems surrounding the Broadway musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark. Her character is “Amanda Reese, the high-strung and larger-than-life director behind a problem-plagued Broadway version of Icarus“, loosely modeled after Spider-Man director, Julie Taymor.[22]

In 2012, Nixon starred as Professor Vivian Bearing in the Broadway debut of Margaret Edson’s Pulitzer Prize–winning play Wit. Produced by the Manhattan Theatre Club, the play opened January 26, 2012 at the Samuel J. Friedman Theatre.[23] Nixon received a Tony nomination for Best Actress in a Play for this performance.[24]

In 2012, Nixon also starred as Petranilla in the TV miniseries of Ken Follett‘s World Without End broadcast on the ReelzChannel, alongside Ben Chaplin, Peter Firth, Charlotte Riley and Miranda Richardson.

In 2015, Nixon appeared in two films, which premiered at the 2015 Sundance Film Festival; Stockholm, Pennsylvania, and James White. She received critical acclaim for both performances, especially for the latter, which many considered as “Oscar-worthy”.[25][26][27][28]

Nixon played the leading role of reclusive American poet Emily Dickinson in the biographical film A Quiet Passion directed and written by Terence Davies.[29] The film premiered in February 2016 at the 66th Berlin International Film Festival. In May 2016, it was announced that Nixon would play Nancy Reagan in the upcoming television film adaptation of Killing Reagan.[30] Filming began in late May and the film is set to air in October 2016.[30]

Personal life

Nixon and wife Christine Marinoni

From 1988 to 2003, Nixon was in a relationship with schoolteacher Danny Mozes.[31] They have two children together, daughter Sam (born 1996) and son Charles Ezekiel (born 2002).[32]

In 2004, Nixon began dating education activist Christine Marinoni.[33] Nixon and Marinoni became engaged in April 2009[34] and were married in New York City on May 27, 2012, with Nixon wearing a custom-made, pale green dress by Carolina Herrera.[31][35] Marinoni gave birth to a son, Max Ellington, in 2011.[36]

Regarding her sexual orientation, Nixon remarked in 2007: “I don’t really feel I’ve changed. I’d been with men all my life, and I’d never fallen in love with a woman. But when I did, it didn’t seem so strange. I’m just a woman in love with another woman.”[33] She identified herself as bisexual in 2012.[37] Nixon has taken a public stand supporting the legalization of same-sex marriage in Washington State, Marinoni’s home state, hosting a fund-raising event in support of Washington Referendum 74 for that purpose.[38]

In October 2006, Nixon was diagnosed with breast cancer during a routine mammogram.[39] She initially decided not to go public with her illness because of the stigma involved,[40] but in April 2008, she announced her battle with the disease in an interview with Good Morning America.[39] Since then, Nixon has become a breast cancer activist. She convinced the head of NBC to air her breast cancer special in a prime time program,[40] and became an Ambassador for Susan G. Komen for the Cure.[41]

Filmography

Film

Year Title Role Notes
1980 Little Darlings Sunshine Walker
1981 Prince of the City Jeannie
1983 I Am the Cheese Amy Hertz
1984 Amadeus Lorl
1986 The Manhattan Project Jenny Anderman
1987 O.C. and Stiggs Michelle
1988 The Murder of Mary Phagan Doreen
1989 Let It Ride Evangeline
1993 The Pelican Brief Alice Stark
1993 Addams Family Values Heather
1993 Through an Open Window Nancy Cooper Short film
1994 Baby’s Day Out Gilbertine
1996 Marvin’s Room Retirement Home Director
2000 Papa’s Angels Sharon Jenkins
2001 Advice From a Caterpillar Missy
2002 Igby Goes Down Mrs. Piggee
2005 Little Manhattan Leslie Burton
2006 One Last Thing… Carol
2007 The Babysitters Gail Beltran
2008 Sex and the City: The Movie Miranda Hobbes
2009 Lymelife Melissa Bragg
2009 An Englishman in New York Penny Arcade
2010 Sex and the City 2 Miranda Hobbes
2011 Rampart Barbara
2014 5 Flights Up Niece
2015 Stockholm, Pennsylvania Marcy Dargon
2015 James White Gail White
2015 The Adderall Diaries Jen Davis
2016 A Quiet Passion Emily Dickinson

Television

Year Title Role Notes
1982 My Body, My Child Nancy TV film
1988 Tanner ’88 Alex Tanner 10 episodes
1989 Gideon Oliver Allison Parrish Slocum Episode: “Sleep Well, Professor Oliver”
1989 The Equalizer Jackie Episode: “Silent Fury”
1990 The Young Riders Annie 2 episodes
1990 Law & Order Laura di Biasi Episode: “Subterranean Homeboy Blues
1991 Love, Lies and Murder Donna Miniseries
1993 Murder, She Wrote Alice Morgan Episode: “Threshold of Fear”
1996 Early Edition Sheila Episode: “Baby”
1998–2004 Sex and the City Miranda Hobbes 94 episodes
1999 The Outer Limits Trudy Episode: “Alien Radio
1999 Touched by an Angel Melina Richardson/Sister Sarah Episode: “Into the Fire”
2004 Tanner on Tanner Alex Tanner 4 episodes
2005 ER Ellie Episode: “Alone in a Crowd”
2005 Warm Springs Eleanor Roosevelt TV film
2005 House Anica Jovanovich Episode: “Deception
2007 Law & Order: Special Victims Unit Janis Episode: “Alternate”
2010–2011 The Big C Rebecca 10 episodes
2011 Too Big to Fail Michele Davis TV film
2011 Law & Order: Criminal Intent Amanda Rollins Episode: “Icarus”
2012 World Without End Petronilla 7 episodes
2012 30 Rock Herself Episode: “Kidnapped by Danger
2013–2014 Alpha House Senator Carly Armiston 6 episodes
2014 Hannibal Kade Prurnell 4 episodes
2016 Broad City Barb Episode: “2016”
2016 Killing Reagan Nancy Reagan TV film

Awards and nominations

Year Association Category Nominated work Result
1981 Theatre World Award The Philadelphia Story Won
1987 Young Artist Awards Exceptional Performance by a Younger Actress in a Supporting Role The Manhattan Project Nominated
1995 Tony Awards Best Featured Actress in a Play Indiscretions Nominated
2000 Golden Globe Awards Best Supporting Actress – Series, Miniseries or Television Film Sex and the City Nominated
2001 Golden Globe Awards Best Supporting Actress – Series, Miniseries or Television Film Nominated
Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series Nominated
2002 Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series Nominated
Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series Won
2003 Golden Globe Awards Best Supporting Actress – Series, Miniseries or Television Film Nominated
Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series Nominated
Satellite Awards Best Supporting Actress – Series, Miniseries or Television Film Nominated
Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series Nominated
2004 Golden Globe Awards Best Supporting Actress – Series, Miniseries or Television Film Nominated
Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series Won
Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series Won
2005 Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie Warm Springs Nominated
Satellite Awards Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film Nominated
Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series Sex and the City Nominated
2006 Golden Globe Awards Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film Warm Springs Nominated
Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Miniseries or Television Movie Nominated
Tony Awards Best Actress in a Play Rabbit Hole Won
2008 Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series Law & Order: Special Victims Unit Won
2009 People’s Choice Awards Favorite Cast Sex and the City: The Movie Nominated
Grammy Awards Best Spoken Word Album (with Beau Bridges and Blair Underwood) An Inconvenient Truth Won
2011 Golden Raspberry Awards Worst Actress Sex and the City 2 Won
2012 Tony Awards Best Actress in a Play Wit Nominated
2015 Critics Choice Awards Best Supporting Actress in a Movie/Limited Series Stockholm, Pennsylvania Nominated
2015 Chicago Film Critics Association Best Supporting Actress[42] James White Nominated
2015 Detroit Film Critics Society Best Supporting Actress[43] James White Nominated
2015 Online Film Critics Society Best Supporting Actress[44] James White Nominated
2016 Film Independent Spirit Awards Best Supporting Female[45] James White Nominated
2016 Satellite Awards Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film[46] Stockholm, Pennsylvania Nominated

References

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  2. Tallmer, Jerry (March 18–24, 2009). “Cynthia Nixon brings focus to “Distracted””. The Villager. 78 (41). Retrieved February 25, 2014.
  3. Stated on Who Do You Think You Are?, July 22, 2014
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  9. Galanes, Philip (January 17, 2014). “Allison Williams and Cynthia Nixon Talk About ‘Girls’ and ‘Sex and the City'”. The New York Times. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  10. Rich, Frank (December 12, 1985). “Theater – ‘Lemon Sky’ by Lanford Wilson”. The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  11. Considine, Bob (May 30, 2008). “‘Sex’ star Cynthia Nixon on her cancer, girlfriend”. Today.com. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  12. Rich, Frank (May 25, 1988). “Review/Theater; ‘Romeo and Juliet’ in the Shakespeare Marathon”. The New York Times. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  13. Prose, Francine (August 26, 2011). “What Wendy Wasserstein Wrought”. The New York Times. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
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  37. Grindley, Lucas (January 30, 2012). “Cynthia Nixon: Being Bisexual “Is Not a Choice””. The Advocate. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  38. Dickie, Lance (September 24, 2012). “Ref. 74: Separate but equal does not work”. The Seattle Times. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  39. Sterns, Olivia; Periera, Jen; Trachtenberg, Thea; Zaccaro, Laura (April 15, 2008). “Cynthia Nixon Beats Breast Cancer, Becomes Advocate”. ABC News. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  40. “Celebrities Inspiration Roundup”. American Breast Cancer Guide.
  41. Hooper, Duncan (April 17, 2008). “Cynthia Nixon describes breast cancer treatment”. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  42. ZWECKER, BILL (14 December 2015). “MAD MAX’ LEADS PACK WITH MOST NOMINATIONS FROM CHICAGO CRITICS”. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  43. http://cinemanerdz.com/the-2015-detroit-film-critics-society-awards-nominations/
  44. http://www.flickfilosopher.com/2015/12/ofcs-2015-awards-nominees-announced.html
  45. http://deadline.com/2015/11/film-independent-spirit-award-nominations-announced-live-1201637064/
  46. http://www.pressacademy.com/award_cat/2015/

Sara Gilbert

Thursday, August 25th, 2016

Wikipedia

Sara Gilbert (de son vrai nom Sara Rebecca Abeles, née le à Santa Monica en Californie) est une actrice américaine, connue pour avoir incarné Darlene Conner-Healy dans la série sitcom Roseanne de 1988 à 1997.

Sommaire

Biographie

Ses parents sont Barbara Crane (née Cowan) et Harold Abeles. Avant d’épouser son père, Barbara, sa mère, était mariée à l’acteur, Paul Gilbert avec qui elle a adopté Melissa Gilbert et Jonathan Gilbert, les deux stars de la série La Petite Maison dans la prairie. Cependant, Paul Gilbert décède d’une hémorragie cérébrale en 1975. Ses parents, Barbara et Harold ont divorcé peu de temps après la mort de ce dernier. Sara a changé son nom de famille Abeles en Gilbert afin de devenir actrice en 1984.

Carrière à la télévision

Sara a décidé de devenir actrice à l’âge de 6 ans, juste après que sa sœur aînée, Melissa Gilbert, a eu son étoile sur Walk of Fame (Hollywood). Après avoir fait plusieurs apparitions dans des séries télévisées puis dans des publicités, Sara obtient à l’âge de 13 ans le rôle de Darlene Conner-Healy, l’enfant sarcastique du milieu, dans Roseanne. Elle a joué dans cette série pendant neuf ans (19881997), elle a même écrit le scénario d’un épisode de la quatrième saison de la série.

Elle est apparue ensuite dans plusieurs séries télévisées, dont notamment 24 heures chrono (cinq épisodes), Urgences (quinze épisodes) et The Big Bang Theory (huit épisodes).

Vie privée

Depuis son adolescence, elle est végétarienne1, et même végane2.

En 1992, à l’âge de 17 ans, Sara a fréquenté pendant six mois l’acteur Johnny Galecki – rencontré sur le tournage de Roseanne. Sara a déclaré en 2013 qu’elle a réalisé qu’elle était lesbienne pendant qu’elle fréquentait l’acteur3.

En 2001, Sara a commencé à fréquenter la productrice de télévision Allison Adler, mais ce n’est qu’en 2010 qu’elle déclare publiquement être lesbienne4. Ensemble, elles ont eu deux enfants ; un garçon prénommé Levi Hank qu’Allison a mis au monde en , et une fille prénommée Swayer que Sara a mise au monde le 5,6. Sara et Allison se sont séparées en au bout de dix ans de vie commune7.

Depuis , Sara est en couple avec la musicienne Linda Perry8. Après s’être fiancées en 9, elles se sont mariées le 10. Le , Sara a donné naissance à leur fils, prénommé Rhodes Emilio Gilbert Perry11.

Filmographie

Cinéma

Télévision

Stephen Fry

Thursday, August 25th, 2016

Wikipedia

Stephen John Fry (born 24 August 1957)[1] is an English comedian, actor, writer, presenter and activist. After a troubled childhood and adolescence, during which he was expelled from two schools and spent three months in prison for credit card fraud, Fry secured a place at Queens’ College, Cambridge, where he studied English literature. While at university, he became involved with the Cambridge Footlights, where he met his long-time collaborator Hugh Laurie. As half of the comic double act Fry and Laurie, he co-wrote and co-starred in A Bit of Fry & Laurie and also took the role of Jeeves (with Laurie playing Wooster) in Jeeves and Wooster.

Fry’s acting roles include a Golden Globe Award–nominated lead performance in the film Wilde, Melchett in the BBC television series Blackadder, the title character in the television series Kingdom, a recurring guest role as Dr Gordon Wyatt on the crime series Bones, and as Gordon Deitrich in the dystopian thriller V for Vendetta. He has also written and presented several documentary series, including the Emmy Award–winning Stephen Fry: The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive, which saw him explore his bipolar disorder, and the travel series Stephen Fry in America. He is also the long-time host of the BBC television quiz show QI.

Besides working in television, Fry has contributed columns and articles for newspapers and magazines and written four novels and three volumes of autobiography, Moab Is My Washpot, The Fry Chronicles and More Fool Me. He also appears frequently on BBC Radio 4, starring in the comedy series Absolute Power, being a frequent guest on panel games such as Just a Minute, and acting as chairman for I’m Sorry I Haven’t a Clue, where he was one of a trio of hosts who succeeded the late Humphrey Lyttelton.

Fry is also known for his voice-overs, reading all seven of the Harry Potter novels for the UK audiobook recordings, narrating the LittleBigPlanet and Birds of Steel series of video games, as well as an animated series of explanations of the laws of cricket,[6] and a series of animations about Humanism for the British Humanist Association.[7]

Contents

Early life and education

Fry was born in Hampstead, London, on 24 August 1957,[1] the son of Marianne Eve Fry (née Newman) and Alan John Fry, a British physicist and inventor.[8][9][10] The Fry family originates in Dorset, at Shillingstone and Blandford; in the early 1800s, Samuel Fry (second son of James Fry, of Shillingstone and Blandford) settled in Surrey, with his descendants residing in Middlesex.[11]

Fry’s mother is Jewish, but he was not raised in a religious family.[12] His maternal grandparents, Martin and Rosa Neumann,[10] were Hungarian Jews, who emigrated from Šurany (now Slovakia) to Britain in 1927. Rosa’s parents, who originally lived in Vienna, Austria, were sent to a concentration camp in Riga, Latvia, where they were murdered.[10][12][13] His mother’s aunt and cousins were sent to Auschwitz and Stutthof and never seen again.[10] Fry’s father is English, and his paternal grandmother had roots in Kent and Cheshire.[14][15]

Fry grew up in the village of Booton near Reepham, Norfolk, having moved from Chesham, Buckinghamshire, at an early age. He has an elder brother, Roger, and a younger sister, Joanna.[16]

Fry briefly attended Cawston Primary School in Cawston, Norfolk,[17] before going on to Stouts Hill Preparatory School in Uley, Gloucestershire, at the age of seven, and then to Uppingham School, Rutland, where he joined Fircroft house, and was described as a “near-asthmatic genius”.[18] He was expelled from Uppingham when he was 15 and subsequently from the Paston School.

Fry, upper right, rehearsing a student production of A Midsummer Night’s Dream at the Norfolk College of Arts and Technology in 1975

At 17, after leaving Norfolk College of Arts and Technology, Fry absconded with a credit card stolen from a family friend.[19] He had taken a coat when leaving a pub, planning to spend the night sleeping rough, but had then discovered the card in a pocket.[20] He was arrested in Swindon, and, as a result, spent three months in Pucklechurch Prison on remand. While Fry was in Pucklechurch, his mother had cut out the crossword from every copy of The Times since he had been away, something which Fry said was “a wonderful act of kindness”. Fry later stated that these crosswords were the only thing that got him through the ordeal.[19]

Following his release, he resumed his education at City College Norwich, promising administrators that he would study rigorously to sit the Cambridge entrance exams. He scored well enough to gain a scholarship to Queens’ College, Cambridge. At Cambridge, Fry joined the Cambridge Footlights, appeared on University Challenge,[21] and read for a degree in English literature, graduating with upper second-class honours.[22][23] Fry also met his future comedy collaborator Hugh Laurie at Cambridge and starred alongside him in the Footlights Club.

Career

Television

Comedy

Fry signing autographs at the Apple Store, Regent Street, London, on 3 February 2009

Fry’s career in television began with the 1982 broadcasting of The Cellar Tapes, the 1981 Cambridge Footlights Revue which was written by Fry, Hugh Laurie, Emma Thompson and Tony Slattery. The revue caught the attention of Granada Television, who, keen to replicate the success of the BBC’s Not the Nine O’Clock News, hired Fry, Laurie and Thompson to star alongside Ben Elton in There’s Nothing to Worry About!. A second series, retitled Alfresco, was broadcast in 1983, and a third in 1984; it established Fry and Laurie’s reputation as a comedy double act. In 1983, the BBC offered Fry, Laurie and Thompson their own show, which became The Crystal Cube, a mixture of science fiction and mockumentary that was cancelled after the first episode. Undeterred, Fry and Laurie appeared in an episode of The Young Ones in 1984, and Fry also appeared in Ben Elton’s 1985 Happy Families series. In 1986 and 1987 Fry and Laurie performed sketches on the LWT/Channel 4 show Saturday Live.

Forgiving Fry and Laurie for The Crystal Cube, the BBC commissioned, in 1986, a sketch show that was to become A Bit of Fry & Laurie. The programme ran for 26 episodes spanning four series between 1986 and 1995, and was very successful. During this time, Fry starred in Blackadder II as Lord Melchett, made a guest appearance in Blackadder the Third as the Duke of Wellington, then returned to a starring role in Blackadder Goes Forth, as General Melchett. In a 1988 television special, Blackadder’s Christmas Carol, he played the roles of Lord Melchett and Lord Frondo.

Between 1990 and 1993, Fry starred as Jeeves (alongside Hugh Laurie’s Bertie Wooster) in Jeeves and Wooster, 23 hour-long adaptations of P. G. Wodehouse‘s novels and short stories.

Towards the end of 2003, Fry starred alongside John Bird in the television adaptation of Absolute Power, previously a radio series on BBC Radio 4.

In 2010, Fry took part in a Christmas series of short films called Little Crackers. His short was based on a story from his childhood at school.[24] He appeared as the Christian God in 2011’s Holy Flying Circus.

In January 2016 it was announced that Fry would be appearing as the character “Cuddly Dick” in Series 3 of the Sky One family comedy Yonderland.[25]

In October 2016, Fry will have a lead role in the American sitcom The Great Indoors. He will portray an outdoor magazine publisher helping to ease his best worldly reporter (Joel McHale) into a desk job.[26]

Drama

Fry has appeared in a number of BBC adaptations of plays and books, including a 1992 adaptation of the Simon Gray play The Common Pursuit (he had previously appeared in the West End stage production); a 1998 Malcolm Bradbury adaptation of the Mark Tavener novel In the Red, taking the part of the Controller of BBC Radio 2; and in 2000 in the role of Professor Bellgrove in the BBC serial Gormenghast, which was adapted from the first two novels of Mervyn Peake‘s Gormenghast series. In 2011, Fry portrayed Professor Mildeye in the BBC adaptation of Mary Norton’s 1952 novel The Borrowers.[27]

Fry narrates the first two seasons of the English-language version of the Spanish children’s animated series Pocoyo.[28]

From 2007 to 2009, Fry played the lead role in (and was executive producer for) the legal drama Kingdom, which ran for three series on ITV1.[29] He has also taken up a recurring guest role as FBI psychiatrist Dr. (later chef) Gordon Wyatt in the popular American drama Bones.

In 2010, having learned some Irish for the role,[30] he filmed a cameo role in Ros na Rún, an Irish-language soap opera broadcast in Ireland, Scotland and the United States.[31][32][33]

In 2014 he began starring alongside Kiefer Sutherland and William Devane in 24: Live Another Day as British Prime Minister Alastair Davies.[34]

Documentaries and other factual programmes

Fry’s first documentary was the Emmy Award-winning Stephen Fry: The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive in 2006.[35] The same year, he appeared in the genealogy series Who Do You Think You Are?, tracing his maternal family tree to investigate his Jewish ancestry.[36] Fry narrated The Story of Light Entertainment, which was shown from July–September 2006.[37] In 2007, he presented a documentary on the subject of HIV and AIDS, HIV and Me.[38]

On 7 May 2008, Fry gave a speech as part of a series of BBC lectures on the future of public service broadcasting in the United Kingdom,[39] which he later recorded for a podcast.[40]

His six-part travel series Stephen Fry in America began on BBC One in October 2008, and saw him travel to each of the 50 US states.[41] In the same year, he narrated the nature documentaries Spectacled Bears: Shadow of the Forest for the BBC Natural World series.

In the 2009 television series Last Chance to See, Fry and zoologist Mark Carwardine sought out endangered species, some of which had been featured in Douglas Adams‘ and Carwardine’s 1990 book and radio series of the same name.[42]

In August 2011, Stephen Fry’s 100 Greatest Gadgets was shown on Channel 4 as one of the 100 Greatest strand.[43] His choice for the greatest gadget was the cigarette lighter, which he described as “fire with a flick of the fingers”.[43] In the same month, the nature documentary series Ocean Giants, narrated by Fry, premiered.

In September 2011, Fry’s Planet Word, a five-part documentary about language, aired on BBC HD and BBC Two.[44][45]

In November 2011, an episode of Living The Life featured Fry in an intimate conversation discussing his life and career with Rolling Stones bass player Bill Wyman.[46]

At the 2012 Pride of Britain Awards shown on ITV on 30 October, Fry, along with Michael Caine, Elton John, Richard Branson and Simon Cowell, recited Rudyard Kipling‘s poem “If—” in tribute to the 2012 British Olympic and Paralympic athletes.[47]

In November 2012, Stephen Fry hosted a gadgets show called Gadget Man, exploring the usefulness of various gadgets in different daily situations to improve the livelihoods of everyone.[48]

In October 2013, Fry presented Stephen Fry: Out There, a two-part documentary in which he explores attitudes to homosexuality and the lives of gay people in different parts of the globe.[49]

On Christmas Day 2013, Fry featured with adventurer Bear Grylls in an episode of Channel 4‘s Bear’s Wild Weekends. Over the course of two days, in the Italian Dolomites, Fry travelled on the skids of a helicopter, climbed down a raging 500-foot waterfall, slept in a First World War trench and abseiled down a towering cliff face.[20]

In June 2015 Fry was the guest on BBC Radio 4‘s Desert Island Discs. His favourite piece was the String Quartet No. 14 by Beethoven. His book choice was Four Quartets by T. S. Eliot and his luxury item was “canvasses, easels, brushes, an instruction manual”.[50]

QI

In 2003, Fry began hosting QI (Quite Interesting), a comedy panel game television quiz show. QI was created and co-produced by John Lloyd, and features permanent panellist Alan Davies. QI has the highest viewing figures for any show on BBC Four and Dave (formerly UKTV G2).[51][52] In 2006, Fry won the Rose d’Or award for “Best Game Show Host” for his work on the series.

In October 2015, it was announced that Fry would retire as the host of QI after the “M” series.[53]

Film

Having made his film début in the 1985 film The Good Father, Fry had a brief appearance in A Fish Called Wanda (in which he is knocked out by Kevin Kline, who is posing as an airport security man), and then appeared as the eponymous Peter in Kenneth Branagh‘s Peter’s Friends in 1992. In the 1994 romantic comedy film I.Q., he played the role of James Moreland. Portraying Oscar Wilde (of whom he had been an ardent admirer since the age of 13) in the 1997 film Wilde, he fulfilled to critical acclaim a role that he has said he was “born to play”. It also earned him a nomination for Best Actor – Drama in the 1998 Golden Globe Award. A year later, Fry starred in David Yates‘ small independent film The Tichborne Claimant, and in 2001 he played the detective in Robert Altman’s period costume drama, Gosford Park. In the same year, he also appeared in the Dutch film The Discovery of Heaven, directed by Jeroen Krabbé and based on the novel by Harry Mulisch.

In 2003, Fry made his directorial début with Bright Young Things, adapted by him from Evelyn Waugh‘s Vile Bodies. In 2001, he began hosting the BAFTA Film Awards, a role from which he stepped down in 2006.[54] Later that same year, he wrote the English libretto and dialogue for Kenneth Branagh’s film adaptation of The Magic Flute.

Fry continues to make regular film appearances, notably in treatments of literary cult classics. He portrayed Maurice Woodruff in The Life and Death of Peter Sellers, served as narrator in the 2005 film version of The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, and in 2005 appeared in both A Cock and Bull Story, based on Tristram Shandy, and V for Vendetta, as a non-conforming TV presenter who challenges the fascist state. The Wachowskis pointed out that it was Fry’s “normalcy” in the face of the insanity of the censorship of BTV that makes his character truly powerful and adds a “wholly unexpected dimension to the film”.[55] In 2006, he played the role of gadget-master Smithers in Stormbreaker, and in 2007 he appeared as himself hosting a quiz in St Trinian’s. In 2007, Fry wrote, for director Peter Jackson, a script for a remake of The Dam Busters.[56]

Fry was offered a role in Valkyrie, but was unable to participate.[57] Fry starred in the Tim Burton version of Alice in Wonderland, as the voice of the Cheshire Cat.[58] He played Mycroft Holmes in the 2011 film Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows, directed by Guy Ritchie.[59] In 2010, Fry provided the voice of Socrates the Lion in the environmental animated film Animals United. He portrayed the Master of Lake-town in two of Peter Jackson‘s three film adaptation of J. R. R. Tolkien‘s The Hobbit: the second The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug,[60] and the third The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies.

Radio

Fry came to the attention of radio listeners with the 1986 creation of his alter-ego, Donald Trefusis, whose “wireless essays” were broadcast on the BBC Radio 4 programme Loose Ends. In the 1980s, he starred as David Lander in four series of the BBC Radio 4 show Delve Special, written by Tony Sarchet, which then became the six-part Channel 4 series This is David Lander in 1988. In 1988, Fry wrote and presented a six-part comedy series entitled Saturday Night Fry. Frequent radio appearances have ensued, notably on panel games Just a Minute and I’m Sorry I Haven’t a Clue. In 2000, he began starring as Charles Prentiss in the Radio 4 comedy Absolute Power, reprising the role for three further series on radio, and two on television. In 2002, Fry was one of the narrators of A.A. Milne’s Winnie-the-Pooh and The House at Pooh Corner, in which he voiced Winnie-the-Pooh. He presented a 20-part, two-hour series, The Incomplete and Utter History of Classical Music, a “witty guide” to the genre over the past 1,000 years, on Classic FM.

In 2007, he hosted Current Puns, an exploration of wordplay, and Radio 4: This Is Your Life, to celebrate the radio station’s 40th anniversary. He also interviewed Tony Blair as part of a series of podcasts released by 10 Downing Street.[61]

In February 2008, Fry began presenting podcasts entitled Stephen Fry’s Podgrams, in which he recounts his life and recent experiences.[62] In July 2008, he appeared as himself in I Love Stephen Fry, an Afternoon Play for Radio 4 written by former Fry and Laurie script editor Jon Canter.[63]

Since August 2008, he has presented Fry’s English Delight, a series on BBC Radio 4 about the English language.[64] As of 2015, it has been running for eight series and 30 episodes.

In the summer 2009 series of I’m Sorry I Haven’t a Clue, Fry was one of a trio of hosts replacing Humphrey Lyttelton (the others being Jack Dee and Rob Brydon).[65]

In 2012, he appeared as a guest panellist in the BBC Radio 4 comedy panel show Wordaholics.[66]

In September 2012, he guest-starred as himself in the audio comedy drama We Are The BBC, produced by the Wireless Theatre Company, written by Susan Casanove.[67]

Theatre

Fry wrote the play Latin! or Tobacco and Boys for the 1980 Edinburgh Festival, where it won the Fringe first prize.[68] It had a revival in 2009 at London’s Cock Tavern Theatre, directed by Adam Spreadbury-Maher.[69] The Cellar Tapes, the Footlights Revue of 1981, won the Perrier Comedy Award. In 1984, Fry adapted the hugely successful 1930s musical Me and My Girl for the West End, where it ran for eight years.

Fry was cast in Simon Gray’s The Common Pursuit for its first staging in London’s West End on 7 April 1988, with Rik Mayall, John Sessions, Sarah Berger, Paul Mooney and John Gordon Sinclair, directed by Simon Gray.[70] He was also cast in a lead role in Simon Gray’s 1995 play Cell Mates, which he left three days into the West End run, pleading stage fright. He later recalled the incident as a hypomanic episode in his documentary about bipolar disorder, The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive. In 2007, Fry wrote a Christmas pantomime, Cinderella, which ran at London’s Old Vic Theatre.[71]

Fry is a long-standing fan of the anarchic British musical comedy group the Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band, and particularly of its eccentric front man, the late Vivian Stanshall. Fry helped to fund a 1988 London re-staging of Stanshall’s Stinkfoot, a Comic Opera, written by Vivian and Ki Longfellow-Stanshall for the Bristol-based Old Profanity Showboat. Fry performed several of Stanshall’s numbers as part of the Bonzos’ 2006 reunion concert at the London Astoria. He also appears as a shiny New Millennium Bonzo on their post-reunion album, Pour l’Amour des Chiens, on which he recites a recipe for “Salmon Proust”, plays a butler in “Hawkeye the Gnu”, and voices ads for the fictitious “Fiasco” stores.

Following three one-man shows in Australia, Fry announced a ‘sort of stand-up‘ performance at The Royal Albert Hall in London for September 2010.[72]

In September 2012,[73] Fry made a return to the stage at Shakespeare’s Globe, appearing as Malvolio in a production of William Shakespeare‘s Twelfth Night, which transferred to the West End in November 2012.[74] He received excellent reviews.[73][74] The production transferred to Broadway, with previews beginning 15 October 2013 and Opening Night 10 November 2013. Fry was nominated for a Tony in the category Best Performance by an Actor in a Featured Role in a Play for the Broadway revival.[75][76]

In August 2013, he lent his voice to the title role in Britten‘s operetta Paul Bunyan at the Wales Millennium Centre with the Welsh National Youth Opera.[77]

Audiobooks

Fry has been the reader for the British versions of all of J. K. Rowling‘s Harry Potter series of audiobooks. He discussed this project in an interview with J. K. Rowling in 2005.[78] He has also been the reader for Douglas Adams‘s The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy film tie-in edition, and has made recordings of his own books, such as The Stars’ Tennis Balls and Moab Is My Washpot, and of works by Roald Dahl, Michael Bond, A. A. Milne, Anthony Buckeridge, Eleanor Updale and Alexander Pushkin.

In June 2015, Fry backed children’s fairytales app GivingTales in aid of Unicef together with Sir Roger Moore, Ewan McGregor, Dame Joan Collins, Joanna Lumley, Michael Caine, David Walliams, Charlotte Rampling and Paul McKenna. [79]

Video games

Fry’s distinctive voice has been featured in a number of video games, including an appearance as Reaver, an amoral supporting character in Lionhead Studios games Fable II and Fable III, and as the narrator of the LittleBigPlanet series.[80][81] He also narrated the first four Harry Potter games: (Philosopher’s Stone, Chamber of Secrets, Prisoner of Azkaban, and Goblet of Fire).

Advertising

Fry has appeared in numerous advertisements – either on-screen or in voice-over – starting with an appearance as “Count Ivan Skavinsky Skavar” in a 1982 advert for Whitbread Best Bitter. Fry has said, in his memoirs, that after receiving his payment for this work – £25,000 – he has never subsequently experienced “what one could call serious money troubles”.[82] He has since appeared in adverts for products and companies such as Marks and Spencer, Twinings, Kenco, Vauxhall, Honda, Direct Line, Calpol, Heineken, Alliance & Leicester (a series of adverts which also featured Hugh Laurie), After Eights, Trebor, Panama cigars, Virgin Media and Orange Mobile.

Literature

Since the publication of his first novel, The Liar (1991), Fry has written three further novels, several non-fiction works and three volumes of autobiography. Making History (1997) is partly set in an alternative universe in which Adolf Hitler‘s father is made infertile and his replacement proves a rather more effective Führer. The book won the Sidewise Award for Alternate History. The Hippopotamus (1994) is about Edward (Ted/Tedward) Wallace and his stay at his old friend Lord Logan’s country manor in Norfolk. The Stars’ Tennis Balls (2000) is a modern retelling of The Count of Monte Cristo. Fry’s book The Ode Less Travelled: Unlocking the Poet Within is a guide to writing poetry.

When writing a book review for Tatler, Fry wrote under a pen name, Williver Hendry, editor of A Most Peculiar Friendship: The Correspondence of Lord Alfred Douglas and Jack Dempsey, a field close to his heart as an Oscar Wilde enthusiast. Once a columnist in The Listener and The Daily Telegraph, he now writes a weekly technology column in the Saturday edition of The Guardian. His blog attracted more than 300,000 visitors in its first two weeks.[41]

In May 2009, Fry unveiled The Dongle of Donald Trefusis, an audiobook series following Donald Trefusis (a fictional character from Fry’s novel The Liar and from the BBC Radio 4 series Loose Ends), set over 12 episodes.[83] After its release, it reached No. 1 on the UK Album Chart list.

Fry’s use of the word “luvvie” (spelled “lovie” by Fry) in The Guardian on 2 April 1988 is given by the Oxford English Dictionary as the earliest recorded use of the word as a humorous synonym for “actor”.[84]

Football

In August 2010, Fry joined the board of directors at Norwich City Football Club. A lifelong fan of “the Canaries” and a regular visitor to Carrow Road, he said, on being appointed, “Truly this is one of the most exciting days of my life, and I am as proud and pleased as I could be.”[85] Fry stepped down from his Board position in January 2016, to take up a new position as “Norwich City Ambassador”.[86] Fry said, “My five years in the role have been an honour and a privilege beyond almost anything I can remember. I wish I could take credit for ushering the club up from League One to the Premiership during that time on the Board. Actually, I’m going to. It was all me. It can’t have been a coincidence … But now I’m so happy to relinquish my seat on the board to Thomas Smith and to engage as fully as I can in the role of ambassador for Norwich City. We have so much to be proud of, both on and off the pitch, and I hope to welcome many new fans to the greatest club of all. On the Ball, City!”[86]

In February 2014 Stephen Fry became the honorary president of Proud Canaries, a new club for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender fans.[87]

Twitter

In October 2008, Fry began posting to the social networking site Twitter,[88] which he regularly updated.[89] On 16 May 2009, he celebrated the 500,000-follower mark: “Bless my soul 500k followers. And I love you all. Well, all except that silly one. And that’s not you.”[90]

Fry wields a considerable amount of influence through his use of Twitter.[91][92] He is frequently asked to promote various charities and causes, often inadvertently causing their websites to crash because of the volume of traffic generated by his large number of followers; as Fry notes on his website: “Four thousand hits a second all diving down the pipeline at the same time for minutes on end.”[93] He uses his influence to recommend underexposed musicians and authors (who often see large increases in web hits and sales)[94][95] and to raise awareness of contemporary issues in the world of media and politics, notably the dropping of an injunction against The Guardian[96][97] and the attacking of Daily Mail columnist Jan Moir over her article on the death of Boyzone member Stephen Gately.[98][99]

In November 2009, Fry’s Twitter account reached one million followers. He commemorated the million-followers milestone with a humorous video blog in which a ‘Step Hen Fry’ clone speaks from the year 2034, where MySpace, Facebook and Twitter have combined to form ‘Twit on MyFace’.[100] In November 2010, he welcomed his two-millionth follower with a blog entry detailing his opinions and experiences of Twitter.[101] On 11 March 2012, Fry noted his passing of the four-million-followers mark with a tweet: “Lordy I’ve breasted the 4 million followers tape. Love you all. Yes even YOU. But let’s dedicate today to Douglas Adams‘s diamond jubilee”.[102]

Fry has a history of temporarily distancing himself from the social networking site which began when he received criticism in October 2009. However, he retracted the announcement that he would be leaving the following day.[103] In October 2010, Fry left Twitter for a few days, with a farewell message of “Bye bye”, following press criticism of a quote taken from an interview he had given. After returning, he explained that he had left Twitter to “avoid being sympathised with or told about an article” he “would otherwise never have got wind of”.[104] In some quarters, the general methods Fry uses on Twitter have been criticised.[105] On 15 February 2016, Fry deleted his Twitter account, after receiving criticism for a tweet about Jenny Beavan and her dress.[106] Fry alluded to this on an April 2016 episode of The Rubin Report in which he criticized groupthink mentality and stated that his return to Twitter was a “maybe”.[107]

Acclaim

Stephen Fry visits Nightingale House, a care home in London, in December 2009

In 1995, Fry was presented with an honorary doctorate from the University of Dundee, which named their main Students’ Association bar after his novel The Liar. Fry is a patron of its Lip Theatre Company.[108] He also served two consecutive terms – 1992 to 1995 and 1995 to 1998 – as the student-elected Rector of the University of Dundee. Such was his popularity, he was unopposed when he sought re-election to office in 1995, and by the time he completed his second term in office, he had won the widespread admiration of the University’s staff and students.[109][110] He was awarded the AoC Gold Award in 2004, and was entered into their Hall of Fame.[111] Fry was also awarded an honorary degree from Anglia Ruskin University in 2005.[112][113] He was made honorary president of the Cambridge University Quiz Society and honorary fellow of his alma mater Queens’ College, Cambridge. On 13 July 2010, he was made an honorary fellow of Cardiff University,[114] and on 28 January 2011, he was awarded an honorary doctorate at the University of Sussex, for his work campaigning for people suffering from mental health problems, bipolar disorder and HIV.[115]

He is a Patron of the Norwich Playhouse theatre and a Vice-President of The Noël Coward Society.[116] Fry was the last person to be named Pipe Smoker of the Year before the award was discontinued.[117]

In December 2006, he was ranked sixth for the BBC’s Top Living Icon Award,[118] was featured on The Culture Show, and was voted Most Intelligent Man on Television by readers of Radio Times. The Independent on Sunday Pink List named Fry the second most influential gay person in Britain in May 2007; he had taken the twenty-third position on the list the previous year.[119] Later the same month, he was announced as the 2007 Mind Champion of the Year,[2] in recognition of the success of his documentary The Secret Life of a Manic Depressive in raising awareness of bipolar disorder. He was also nominated in “Best Entertainment Performance” for QI and “Best Factual Series” for Secret Life of the Manic Depressive at the 2007 British Academy Television Awards.[120] That same year, Broadcast magazine listed Fry at number four in its “Hot 100” list of influential on-screen performers, describing him as a polymath and a “national treasure“.[121] He was also granted a lifetime achievement award at the British Comedy Awards on 5 December 2007,[122] and the Special Recognition Award at the National Television Awards on 20 January 2010.[123]

BBC Four dedicated two nights of programming to Fry on 17 and 18 August 2007, in celebration of his 50th birthday. The first night, comprising programs featuring Fry, began with a sixty-minute documentary entitled Stephen Fry: 50 Not Out. The second night was composed of programmes selected by Fry, as well as a 60-minute interview with Mark Lawson and a half-hour special, Stephen Fry: Guilty.[124] The weekend programming proved such a ratings hit for BBC Four that it was repeated on BBC Two on 16 and 17 September 2007.

In 2011, he was the subject of Molly Lewis‘s song An Open Letter to Stephen Fry, in which the singer jokingly offers herself as a surrogate mother for his child.[125] In February 2011, Fry was awarded the Outstanding Lifetime Achievement Award in Cultural Humanism by the Humanist Chaplaincy at Harvard University, the Harvard Secular Society and the American Humanist Association.[126]

In 2012, Fry wrote the foreword to the Union of UEA Students report on the student experience for LGBT+ members.[127] As recognition of his public support for LGBT+ rights and for the Union’s report, the Union of UEA Students awarded him, on 18 October 2012, Honorary Life Membership of the Union.[128]

In March 2014 Fry beat David Attenborough and Davina McCall to win the Best Presenter award at the Royal Television Society Programme Awards. The award was given for his BBC2 programme Stephen Fry: Out There.[129]

In an episode of QI, “M-Merriment”, originally broadcast in December 2015, Fry was awarded membership of The Magic Circle.

Personal life

Fry has been married to Elliot Spencer, a stand-up comedian, since 17 January 2015. In February 2016 they were planning to move to Los Angeles during the spring months so that Fry can work on a new writing project there.[130]

He is on cordial terms with Prince Charles, through his work with the Prince’s Trust. He attended the Prince’s wedding to Camilla Parker Bowles in 2005. Fry is a friend of comedian and actor (and Blackadder co-star) Rowan Atkinson and was best man at Atkinson’s wedding to Sunetra Sastry at the Russian Tea Room in New York City. Fry was a friend of British actor John Mills.[131] His best friend is Hugh Laurie,[132] whom he met while both were at Cambridge and with whom he has collaborated many times over the years. He was best man at Laurie’s wedding and is godfather to all three of his children.[133]

A fan of cricket, Fry has stated that he is related to former England cricketer C.B. Fry,[134] and was interviewed for the Ashes Fever DVD, reporting on England‘s victory over Australia in the 2005 Ashes series. Regarding football, he is a supporter of Norwich City, and is a regular visitor to Carrow Road. He has been described as “deeply dippy for all things digital“, claims to have bought the third Macintosh computer sold in the UK (his friend Douglas Adams bought the first two) and jokes that he has never encountered a smartphone that he has not bought.[135] He counts Wikipedia among his favourite websites “because I like to find out that I died, and that I’m currently in a ballet in China, and all the other very accurate and important things that Wikipedia brings us all.”[136]

Fry has a long-standing interest in Internet production, including having his own website since 1997. His current site, The New Adventures of Mr Stephen Fry, has existed since 2002 and has attracted many visitors following his first blog in September 2007, which comprised a 6,500-word “blessay” on smartphones. In February 2008, Fry launched his private podcast series, Stephen Fry’s Podgrams (now discontinued), and a forum, including discussions on depression and activities in which Fry is involved. The website content is created by Fry and produced by Andrew Sampson. Fry’s weekly gadget column Dork Talk appeared in The Guardian from November 2007 to October 2008.[135] Fry is also a supporter of GNU and the Free Software Foundation.[137] For the 25th anniversary of the GNU operating system, Fry appeared in a video explaining some of the philosophy behind GNU by likening it to the sharing found in science.[138]

When in London, he drives a dark green TX4 London cab.[139] This vehicle has been featured in Fry’s production Stephen Fry in America.[140]

Sexuality

Stephen Fry with Stonewall marchers at WorldPride 2012 in London.

Fry struggled to keep his homosexuality secret during his teenage years at public school, and by his own account did not engage in sexual activity for 16 years from 1979 until 1995.[141] When asked when he first acknowledged his sexuality, Fry quipped: “I suppose it all began when I came out of the womb. I looked back up at my mother and thought to myself, ‘That’s the last time I’m going up one of those’.”[142] Fry was in a 15-year relationship with Daniel Cohen, which ended in 2010.[143] In 2014, Fry was listed number 4 on the World Pride Power list.[144]

On 6 January 2015, The Sun reported that Fry would marry his partner, stand-up comedian Elliott Spencer. Fry wrote on Twitter: “It looks as though a certain cat is out of a certain bag. I’m very very happy of course but had hoped for a private wedding. Fat chance!”[145] Fry married Spencer on 17 January 2015 in the Norfolk town of Dereham.[146]

Politics

Fry was an active supporter of the Labour Party for many years and appeared in a party political broadcast on its behalf with Hugh Laurie and Michelle Collins in November 1993. He did not vote in the 2005 General Election because of the stance of both the Labour and Conservative parties with regard to the Iraq War. Despite his praise of the Blair/Brown government’s work on social reform, Fry has been critical of the Labour Party’s “Third Way” concept. Fry appeared in literature to support changing the British electoral system from first-past-the-post to alternative vote for electing members of parliament to the House of Commons in the Alternative Vote referendum in 2011.[147]

On 30 April 2008, Fry signed an open letter, published in The Guardian newspaper by some well-known Jewish personalities, stating their opposition to celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the State of Israel.[148] Furthermore, he is a signatory member of the British Jews for Justice for Palestinians organisation, which campaigns for Palestinian rights.[149] Fry was among over 100 signatories to a statement published by Sense About Science on 4 June 2009, condemning British libel laws and their use to “severely curtail the right to free speech on a matter of public interest”.[150]

In August 2013, Fry published an “Open Letter to David Cameron and the IOC”[151] calling for a boycott of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, due to concerns over the state-sanctioned persecution of LGBT persons in Russia. Cameron however stated on Twitter he believed “we can better challenge prejudice as we attend, rather than boycotting the Winter Olympics”.[152][153] Adrian Hilton, writing in the Daily Mail, criticised Fry for not calling for a boycott of all Russian performing arts.[154] Fry responded by accusing the Daily Mail of being “against progress, the liberalising of attitudes, modern art and strangers (whether by race, gender or sexuality)”.[155]

In March 2014, Fry publicly backed “Hacked Off” and its campaign towards press self-regulation by “safeguarding the press from political interference while also giving vital protection to the vulnerable.”[156]

Poland controversy

On 6 October 2009, Fry was interviewed by Jon Snow on Channel 4 News[157] as a signatory of a letter to British Conservative Party leader David Cameron expressing concern about the party’s relationship with the Polish national conservative Law and Justice party in the European Parliament.[158] During the interview, he stated:

There has been a history, let’s face it, in Poland of a right-wing Catholicism which has been deeply disturbing for those of us who know a little history, and remember which side of the border Auschwitz was on and know the stories, and know much of the anti-semitic, and homophobic and nationalistic elements in countries like Poland.

The remark prompted a complaint from the Polish Embassy in London, an editorial in The Economist and criticism from British Jewish historian David Cesarani.[159][160][161][162] Fry has since posted an apology in a six-page post on his personal blog, in which he stated:

I offer no excuse. I seemed to imply that the Polish people had been responsible for the most infamous of all the death factories of the Third Reich. I didn’t even really at the time notice the import of what I had said, so gave myself no opportunity instantly to retract the statement. It was a rubbishy, cheap and offensive remark that I have been regretting ever since. I take this opportunity to apologise now. I said a stupid, thoughtless and fatuous thing. It detracted from and devalued my argument, such as it was, and it outraged and offended a large group of people for no very good reason. I am sorry in all directions, and all the more sorry because it is no one’s fault but my own, which always makes it so much worse.[163]

Health

Fry has bipolar disorder.[164] His first diagnosis was cyclothymia, which he refers to as “bipolar lite”.[165][166] However, his diagnosis has since been changed to bipolar I disorder. Fry has spoken publicly about his experience with bipolar disorder, which was depicted in the documentary Stephen Fry: The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive.[167] In the programme, he interviewed other sufferers of the illness including Carrie Fisher, Richard Dreyfuss and Tony Slattery. He is involved with the mental health charity Stand to Reason[168] and is president of Mind.[2] In 2013 he revealed that, in the previous year, he had started taking medication for the first time, in an attempt to control his condition.[20]

In 1995, while appearing in the West End Cell Mates, Fry suffered an acute episode of mental illness and walked out of the production, causing its early closure and incurring the displeasure of co-star Rik Mayall and playwright Simon Gray.[169] Fry went missing for several days and contemplated suicide. He later said that he would have killed himself if he had not had “the option of disappearing”.[169] He abandoned the idea and left the United Kingdom by ferry, eventually resurfacing in Belgium.[170] Fry has attempted suicide on a number of occasions, most recently in 2012.[171] In an interview with Richard Herring in 2013, Fry revealed that he had attempted suicide the previous year while filming abroad. He said that he took a “huge number of pills and a huge [amount] of vodka” and had to be brought back to the UK to be “looked after”.[172]

In January 2008, Fry broke his arm while filming Last Chance to See in Brazil.[173] While climbing aboard a boat, he slipped between it and the dock, and, stopping himself from falling into the water, his body weight snapped his right humerus. The resulting vulnerability to his radial nerve – which affects use of the arm – was not diagnosed until he saw a consultant in the UK.[174]

Appearing on Top Gear in 2009, Fry had lost a significant amount of weight, and explained that he had shed a total of 6 stone (84 lb; 38 kg), attributing the weight loss to doing a lot of walking while listening to downloaded audiobooks.[175] Fry is between 6 feet 4 inches (1.93 m) and 6 feet 5 inches (1.96 m) in height.[176][177]

Fry has stated that he is allergic to champagne[178] and bumble bee stings.[179]

Fry has prosopagnosia.[180][181]

Views on religion

Fry has repeatedly expressed opposition to organised religion, and has identified himself as an atheist and humanist, while declaring some sympathy for the ancient Greek belief in capricious gods. In his first autobiography he described how he once considered ordination to the Anglican priesthood, but came to the conclusion that he “couldn’t believe in God, because [he] was fundamentally Hellenic in [his] outlook.”[182] He has stated that religion can have positive effects: “Sometimes belief means credulity, sometimes an expression of faith and hope which even the most sceptical atheist such as myself cannot but find inspiring.”[183]

In 2009, The Guardian published a letter from Fry addressing his younger self, explaining how his future is soon to unfold, reflecting on the positive progression towards gay acceptance and openness around him, and yet not everywhere, while warning on how “the cruel, hypocritical and loveless hand of religion and absolutism has fallen on the world once more.”[184] Later that year, he and Christopher Hitchens participated in an “Intelligence Squared” debate in which they argued against Ann Widdecombe and Archbishop John Onaiyekan, who supported the view that the Catholic Church was a force for good. Fry and Hitchens argued that the church did more harm than good. Fry attacked the Catholic Church’s teachings on sexuality and denounced its wealth.[185]

In 2010 Fry was made a Distinguished Supporter of the British Humanist Association, stating: “it is essential to nail one’s colours to the mast as a humanist.”[186] Later that year, Fry, joined 54 other public figures in signing an open letter published in The Guardian stating their opposition to Pope Benedict XVI’s visit to the United Kingdom being a state visit.[187] On 22 February 2011, Fry was presented with the Lifetime Achievement Award in Cultural Humanism by the Humanist Chaplaincy at Harvard University.[188][189]

Interviewed in 2015 by veteran Irish broadcaster Gay Byrne, Fry was asked what he would say if he came face-to-face with God. Fry said: “Bone cancer in children, what’s that about? How dare you? How dare you create a world where there is such misery that’s not our fault? It’s utterly, utterly evil.”[190] Within days, the video was viewed over five million times.[191] Fry later stated he did not refer to any specific religion, and said: “I said quite a few things that were angry at this supposed God. I was merely saying things that Bertrand Russell and many finer heads of the mind have said for many thousands of years, going all the way back to the Greeks.”[192]

Business

In 2008, Fry formed SamFry Ltd, with long-term collaborator Andrew Sampson to produce and fund new material and manage his official website.[193]

Fry is the co-owner, with Gina Carter and Sandi Toksvig, of Sprout Pictures, an independent film and television company.[194]

Computing and software freedom

Fry uses Ubuntu as his desktop operating system.[195] In 2008 he appeared in a film made by the Free Software Foundation to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the GNU Project to create a completely free operating system.[196] In the film Fry explains the principles of software freedom central to the development of the Linux and GNU software projects.[197]

Bibliography

As author

As contributor

Derek Jacobi

Thursday, August 25th, 2016

Wikipedia

Sir Derek George Jacobi CBE (/ˈækəbi/; born 22 October 1938) is an English actor and stage director.

A “forceful, commanding stage presence”,[1] Jacobi has enjoyed a successful stage career, appearing in such stage productions as Hamlet,[2] Uncle Vanya,[3] and Oedipus the King. He has twice been awarded a Laurence Olivier Award, first for his performance of the eponymous hero in Cyrano de Bergerac in 1983 and the second for his Malvolio in Twelfth Night in 2009. He also received a Tony Award for his performance in Much Ado About Nothing in 1984 and a Primetime Emmy Award in 1988 for The Tenth Man. His stage work includes playing Octavius Caesar, Edward II, Richard III[4] and Thomas Becket.

In addition to being a founder member of the Royal National Theatre and winning several prestigious theatre awards, Jacobi has also enjoyed a successful television career, starring in the critically praised[2] adaptation of Robert Graves‘s I, Claudius (1976), for which he won a BAFTA; in the titular role in the medieval drama series Cadfael (1994-1998),[5] as Stanley Baldwin in The Gathering Storm (2002), as Stuart Bixby in the ITV comedy Vicious (2013-2015) and as Alan Buttershaw in Last Tango in Halifax (2012-present).

Though principally a stage actor, Jacobi has appeared in a number of films, including The Day of the Jackal (1973), Henry V (1989), Dead Again (1991), Gladiator (2000), Gosford Park (2001), The Riddle (2007), The King’s Speech (2010), My Week with Marilyn (2011), and Cinderella (2015).

He holds a British knighthood and has been appointed a Knight First Class of the Order of the Dannebrog.[1]

Contents

Early life

Jacobi, an only child, was born in Leytonstone, London, England, the son of Daisy Gertrude (née Masters), a secretary who worked in a drapery store in Leyton High Road, and Alfred George Jacobi, who ran a sweet shop and was a tobacconist in Chingford.[6] His great-grandfather on his father’s side had emigrated from Germany to England during the 19th century.[7] His family was working class.[8] Jacobi describes his childhood as happy. In his teens he went to the Leyton Sixth Form College and became an integral part of the drama club, The Players of Leyton.

While in the sixth-form, he starred in a production of Hamlet, which was taken to the Edinburgh Festival Fringe and very well regarded.[9] At 18 he won a scholarship to the University of Cambridge, where he read history at St John’s College and earned his degree. Younger members of the university at the time included Ian McKellen (who had a crush on him – “a passion that was undeclared and unrequited”, as McKellen relates it)[10] and Trevor Nunn. During his studies at Cambridge, Jacobi played many parts including Hamlet, which was taken on a tour to Switzerland, where he met Richard Burton. As a result of his performance of Edward II at Cambridge, Jacobi was invited to become a member of the Birmingham Repertory Theatre immediately upon his graduation in 1960.

Career

Early work

Jacobi’s talent was recognised by Laurence Olivier, who invited the young actor back to London to become one of the founding members of the new National Theatre, even though at the time Jacobi was relatively unknown. He played Laertes in the National Theatre’s inaugural production of Hamlet opposite Peter O’Toole in 1963. Olivier cast him as Cassio in the successful National Theatre stage production of Othello, a role that Jacobi repeated in the 1965 film version. He played Andrei in the NT production and film of Three Sisters (1970), both featuring Olivier. On 27 July 1965, Jacobi played Brindsley Miller in the first production of Peter Shaffer‘s Black Comedy. It was presented by the National Theatre at Chichester and subsequently in London.

After eight years at the National Theatre, Jacobi left in 1971 to pursue different roles. In 1972, he starred in the BBC serial Man of Straw an adaptation of Heinrich Mann‘s book Der Untertan, directed by Herbert Wise. Most of his theatrical work in the 1970s was with the touring classical Prospect Theatre Company, with which he undertook many roles, including Ivanov, Pericles, Prince of Tyre and A Month in the Country opposite Dorothy Tutin (1976).

Jacobi was increasingly busy with stage and screen acting, but his big breakthrough came in 1976 when he played the title role in the BBC’s series I, Claudius. He cemented his reputation with his performance as the stammering, twitching Emperor Claudius, winning much praise. In 1979, thanks to his international popularity, he took Hamlet on a theatrical world tour through England, Egypt, Greece, Sweden, Australia, Japan and China, playing Prince Hamlet. He was invited to perform the role at Kronborg Castle, Denmark, known as Elsinore Castle, the setting of the play. In 1978 he appeared in the BBC Television Shakespeare production of Richard II, with Sir John Gielgud and Dame Wendy Hiller.

Later career

In 1980, Jacobi took the leading role in the BBC’s Hamlet, made his Broadway debut in The Suicide (a run shortened by Jacobi’s return home to England due to the death of his mother), and joined the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC). From 1982 to 1985 he played four demanding roles simultaneously: Benedick in Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing, for which he won a Tony for its Broadway run (1984–1985); Prospero in The Tempest; Peer Gynt; and Cyrano de Bergerac which he brought to the US and played in repertory with Much Ado About Nothing on Broadway and in Washington DC (1984–1985). In 1986, he made his West End debut in Breaking the Code by Hugh Whitemore, starring in the role of Alan Turing, which was written with Jacobi specifically in mind. The play was taken to Broadway. In 1988 Jacobi alternated in West End the title roles of Shakespeare’s Richard II and Richard III in repertoire.

He appeared in the television dramas Inside the Third Reich (1982), where he played Hitler; Mr Pye (1985); and Little Dorrit (1987), based on Charles Dickens‘s novel; The Tenth Man (1988) with Anthony Hopkins and Kristin Scott Thomas. In 1982, he lent his voice to the character of Nicodemus in the animated film, The Secret of NIMH. In 1990, he starred as Daedalus in episode 4 of Jim Henson’s The Storyteller: Greek Myths.

Jacobi continued to play Shakespeare roles, notably in Kenneth Branagh‘s 1989 film of Henry V (as the Chorus), and made his directing debut as Branagh’s director for the 1988 Renaissance Theatre Company‘s touring production of Hamlet, which also played at Elsinore and as part of a Renaissance repertory season at the Phoenix Theatre in London. The 1990s saw Jacobi keeping on with repertoire stage work in Kean at the Old Vic, Becket in the West End (the Haymarket Theatre) and Macbeth at the RSC in both London and Stratford. In 1993 Jacobi voiced Mr Jeremy Fisher in The World of Peter Rabbit and Friends.

He was appointed the joint artistic director of the Chichester Festival Theatre, with the West End impresario Duncan Weldon in 1995 for a three-year tenure. As an actor at Chichester he also starred in four plays, including his first Uncle Vanya in 1996 (he played it again in 2000, bringing the Chekhov play to Broadway for a limited run). Jacobi’s work during the 1990s included the 13-episode series TV adaptation of the novels by Ellis Peters, Cadfael (1994–1998) and a televised version of Breaking the Code (1996). Film appearances included performances in Kenneth Branagh‘s Dead Again (1991), Branagh’s full-text rendition of Hamlet (1996) as King Claudius, John Maybury‘s Love is the Devil (1998), a portrait of painter Francis Bacon, as Senator Gracchus in Gladiator (2000) with Russell Crowe, and as “The Duke” opposite Christopher Eccleston and Eddie Izzard in a post-apocalyptic version of Thomas Middleton‘s The Revenger’s Tragedy (2002).

In 2001, Jacobi won an Emmy Award by mocking his Shakespearean background in the television sitcom Frasier episode “The Show Must Go Off”, in which he played the world’s worst Shakespearean actor: the hammy, loud, untalented Jackson Hedley. This was his first guest appearance on an American television programme.

2000–present

Jacobi has narrated audio book versions of the Iliad, The Voyage of the Dawn Treader by C. S. Lewis and two abridged versions of I, Claudius by Robert Graves. In 2001 he provided the voice of “Duke Theseus” in The Children’s Midsummer Night’s Dream film. In 2002, Jacobi toured Australia in The Hollow Crown with Sir Donald Sinden, Ian Richardson and Dame Diana Rigg. Jacobi also played the role of Senator Gracchus in Gladiator and starred in the 2002 miniseries The Jury. He is also the narrator for the BBC children’s series In the Night Garden.

In 2003, he was involved with Scream of the Shalka, a webcast based on the science fiction series Doctor Who. He played the voice of the Doctor’s nemesis the Master alongside Richard E. Grant as the Doctor. In the same year, he also appeared in Deadline, an audio drama also based on Doctor Who. Therein he played Martin Bannister, an ageing writer who makes up stories about “the Doctor”, a character who travels in time and space, the premise being that the series had never made it on to television. Jacobi later followed this up with an appearance in the Doctor Who episode “Utopia” (June 2007); he appears as the kindly Professor Yana, who by the end of the episode is revealed to actually be the Master. Jacobi admitted to Doctor Who Confidential he had always wanted to be on the show: “One of my ambitions since the ’60s has been to take part in a Doctor Who. The other one is Coronation Street. So I’ve cracked Doctor Who now. I’m still waiting for Corrie.”[11]

In 2004 Jacobi starred in Friedrich Schiller‘s Don Carlos at the Crucible Theatre in Sheffield, in an acclaimed production, which transferred to the Gielgud Theatre in London in January 2005. The London production of Don Carlos gathered rave reviews. Also in 2004, he starred as Lord Teddy Thursby in the first of the four-part BBC series The Long Firm, based on Jake Arnott‘s novel of the same name. In Nanny McPhee (2005), he played the role of the colourful Mr. Wheen, an undertaker. He played the role of Alexander Corvinus in the 2006 movie Underworld: Evolution.

In March 2006, BBC Two broadcast Pinochet in Suburbia, a docudrama about former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet and the attempts to extradite him from Great Britain; Jacobi played the leading role. In September 2007, it was released in the U.S., retitled Pinochet’s Last Stand. In 2006, he appeared in the children’s movie Mist, the tale of a sheepdog puppy, he also narrated this movie. In July–August 2006, he played the eponymous role in A Voyage Round My Father at the Donmar Warehouse, a production which then transferred to the West End.

Jacobi signing autographs after his performance in “Twelfth Night”, London, 2009

In February 2007, The Riddle, directed by Brendan Foley and starring Jacobi, Vinnie Jones, and Vanessa Redgrave, was screened at Berlin EFM. Jacobi plays twin roles: first a present-day London tramp and then the ghost of Charles Dickens. In March 2007, the BBC’s children’s programme In the Night Garden… started its run of one hundred episodes, with Jacobi as the narrator. He played Nell’s grandfather in ITV’s Christmas 2007 adaptation of The Old Curiosity Shop, and returned to the stage to play Malvolio in Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night (2009) for the Donmar Warehouse at Wyndham’s Theatre in London.[12] The role won him the Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actor.[13] He appears in five 2009 films: Morris: A Life with Bells On, Hippie Hippie Shake, Endgame, Adam Resurrected and Charles Dickens’s England. In 2010 he returned to I, Claudius, as Augustus in a radio adaptation. In 2011, he was part of a medieval epic, Ironclad, which also starred James Purefoy and Paul Giamatti, as the ineffectual Reginald de Cornhill, castellan of Rochester castle.

Jacobi starred in Michael Grandage‘s production of King Lear (London, 2010), giving what The New Yorker called “one of the finest performances of his distinguished career”.[14] In May 2011 he reprised this role at the Brooklyn Academy of Music.[15]

In April 2012 he appeared in Titanic: Blood and Steel and in November 2012 he starred in the BBC series Last Tango in Halifax. In 2013 he starred in the second series of Last Tango and in 2014 the third series.

In 2013, Jacobi starred alongside Ian McKellen in the ITV sitcom Vicious as Stuart Bixby, the partner to Freddie Thornhill, played by McKellen. On 23 August 2013 the show was renewed for a six-episode second series which began airing in June 2015.[16]

Shakespeare authorship involvement

Jacobi has been publicly involved in the Shakespeare authorship question. He supports the Oxfordian theory of Shakespeare authorship, according to which Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford wrote the works of Shakespeare.[17][18] Jacobi has given an address to the Shakespeare Authorship Research Centre promoting de Vere as the Shakespeare author[19] and wrote forewords to two books on the subject in 2004 and 2005.[20][21]

In 2007, Jacobi and fellow Shakespearean actor and director Mark Rylance initiated a “Declaration of Reasonable Doubt” on the authorship of Shakespeare’s work, to encourage new research into the question.

In 2011, Jacobi accepted a role in the film Anonymous, about the Oxfordian theory, starring Rhys Ifans and Vanessa Redgrave. In the film Jacobi narrates the Prologue and Epilogue, set in modern-day New York, while the film proper is set in Elizabethan England. Jacobi allows that making the film was “a very risky thing to do”, and imagines that “the orthodox Stratfordians are going to be apoplectic with rage”.[22]

Personal life

Jacobi is openly gay. In March 2006, four months after civil partnerships were introduced in the United Kingdom, Jacobi registered his civil partnership with Richard Clifford.[23] They live in Primrose Hill, north London.[24] He was a Grand Marshal of the 46th New York City Gay Pride March in 2015.[25]

Honours

Awards

Theatre
Television
  • 1976: BAFTA Award for Best Actor, for I, Claudius
  • 1989: Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Special, for The Tenth Man
  • 2001: Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Series, for Frasier (episode “The Show Must Go Off”)
Film
Ensemble

Filmography

Film

Year Title Role Notes
1965 Othello Cassio
1968 Interlude Paul
1970 Three Sisters Andrei
1973 Blue Blood Gregory
1973 The Day of the Jackal Caron
1974 The Odessa File Klaus Wenzer
1978 The Medusa Touch Townley
1979 The Human Factor Arthur Davis
1981 Charlotte Daberlohn
1982 The Secret of NIMH Nicodemus Voice
1982 Enigma Kurt Limmer
1988 Little Dorrit Arthur Clennam Evening Standard British Film Award for Best Actor
1989 Henry V Chorus
1990 The Fool Mr. Frederick/Sir John
1991 Dead Again Franklyn Madson Nominated—BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role
1996 Looking for Richard Himself
1996 Breaking the Code Alan Turing Television movie
Nominated—BAFTA TV Award for Best Actor
1996 Hamlet Claudius
1998 Basil Father Frederick
1998 Love Is the Devil: Study for a Portrait of Francis Bacon Francis Bacon Nominated—Satellite Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama
1999 Molokai: The Story of Father Damien Father Leonor Fousnel
2000 Up at the Villa Lucky Leadbetter
2000 Gladiator Gracchus Nominated—Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
2001 The Body Father Lavelle
2001 Gosford Park Probert Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Cast
Florida Film Critics Circle Award for Best Cast
Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Cast
Satellite Award for Best Cast – Motion Picture
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
Nominated—Phoenix Film Critics Society Award for Best Cast
2001 The Diaries of Vaslav Nijinsky Nijinsky
2001 Revelation Librarian
2002 Revengers Tragedy The Duke
2002 Two Men Went to War Major Merton
2004 Strings Nezo
2005 Bye Bye Blackbird Lord Dempsey
2005 Nanny McPhee Mr. Wheen
2006 Underworld: Evolution Alexander Corvinus
2007 The Riddle Charles Dickens
2007 Airlock Or How To Say Goodbye In Space President
2007 The Golden Compass Magisterial Emissary
2008 A Bunch of Amateurs Nigel
2009 Morris: A Life with Bells On Quentin Neely
2009 Endgame Rudolf Agnew
2009 Adam Resurrected Dr. Nathan Gross
2009 Charles Dickens’s England Himself
2010 Hippie Hippie Shake Judge
2010 There Be Dragons Honorio
2010 Ironclad Cornhill
2010 The King’s Speech Cosmo Gordon Lang Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
Nominated—Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Cast
2010 Hereafter Himself
2011 Anonymous Narrator
2011 My Week with Marilyn Sir Owen Morshead
2012 Jail Caesar Sulla
2013 Effie Travers Twiss
2015 Cinderella The King
2016 Stratton: First Into Action Ross Filming

Television

Year Title Role Notes
1972 Man of Straw Diederich Hessling 2 episodes
The Strauss Family Joseph Lanner 2 episodes
1974 The Pallisers Lord Fawn 8 episodes
1976 I, Claudius Claudius 12 episodes
BAFTA TV Award for Best Actor
1977 Philby, Burgess and MacLean Guy Burgess Television movie
Nominated—BAFTA TV Award for Best Actor
1978 Richard II Richard II
1979 Minder Freddie Fenton Episode: “The Bounty Hunter”
1980 Hamlet Hamlet
1982 Inside the Third Reich Adolf Hitler Television film
Nominated—Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
1982 The Hunchback of Notre Dame Frollo
1985 Cyrano de Bergerac Cyrano de Bergerac Television film
1987 The Secret Garden Archibald Craven Television film
1986 Mr Pye Mr. Pye 4 episodes
1988 The Tenth Man The Imposter Television film
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film
1990 The Civil War Various 9 episodes
1993 The World of Peter Rabbit and Friends Mr Jeremy Fisher 1 episode
1994–1998 Cadfael Brother Cadfael 13 episodes
2000 The Wyvern Mystery Squire Fairfield Television film
2000 Jason and the Argonauts Phineas Television film
2001 Frasier Jackson Hedley Episode: “The Show Must Go Off”
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Series
2002 The Jury George Cording QC 6 episodes
The Edwardian Country House The Narrator All episodes
The Gathering Storm Stanley Baldwin Television film
2004 London Tacitus Television film
2004 The Long Firm Lord Edward Thursby 2 episodes
2004 Marple – “The Murder at the Vicarage Colonel Protheroe
2007 The Old Curiosity Shop Grandfather Television film
2007–2009 Mist: The Tale of a Sheepdog Puppy Narrator 38 episodes
2007 Doctor Who The Master / Professor Yana Episode: “Utopia
2007–2010 In the Night Garden Narrator 100 episodes
2011 The Borgias Cardinal Orsini 2 episodes
2012 Titanic: Blood and Steel William Pirrie 12 episodes
2012— Last Tango in Halifax Alan Buttershaw 2 series (6+ episodes)
Nominated—BAFTA TV Award for Best Leading Actor
2013— Vicious Stuart Bixby 2 series (12 episodes + 1 Christmas special)
2014—16 The Amazing World of Gumball Narrator, Moon 2 episodes

Theatrical performances

Year Title Role Notes
1980 The Suicide Semyon Semyonovich Podsekalnikov Nominated—Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actor in a Play
1982–1985 Much Ado About Nothing Signior Benedick of Padua Tony Award for Best Actor in a Play
Nominated—Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actor in a Play
1983–1985 Cyrano de Bergerac Cyrano de Bergerac Critics Circle Theatre Award Best Actor
Laurence Olivier Award for Actor of the Year in a Revival
Nominated—Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actor in a Play
1986–1988 Breaking the Code Alan Turing Nominated—Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actor in a Play
Nominated—Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actor
Nominated—Tony Award for Best Actor in a Play
2000 Uncle Vanya Ivan Petrovich Voinitsky Nominated—Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actor in a Play
2009 Twelfth Night Malvolio Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actor
2010 King Lear King Lear

Amanda Bearse

Thursday, August 25th, 2016

Wikipedia

Amanda Bearse (born August 9, 1958) is an American actress, director and comedian best known for her role as neighbor Marcy Rhoades D’Arcy on Married… with Children, a sitcom that aired in the United States from 1987 to 1997, and for her performance in the 1985 horror film Fright Night opposite William Ragsdale.

Contents

Career

Bearse studied acting at New York City’s Neighborhood Playhouse under instructor Sanford Meisner. Her initial success came with the role of Amanda Cousins on the soap opera All My Children from 1982 to 1983. During and after that time, she appeared in a string of independent and B-movies, including Protocol (1984), Fright Night and Fraternity Vacation (both 1985). Her big break came in 1987 when she was cast as Marcy Rhoades (later Marcy D’Arcy) on the hit Fox TV sitcom Married… with Children. She played the role until the show ended in 1997. In the mid-1990s, Bearse also appeared in the films The Doom Generation and Here Come the Munsters.

Bearse began directing television while appearing on Married… with Children, and from 1991 to 1997, she directed 31 episodes of the show. She also directed episodes of Reba; Mad TV; Nick Freno: Licensed Teacher; Malcolm & Eddie; Pauly; The Tom Show; The Jamie Foxx Show; Dharma & Greg; Veronica’s Closet; Two Guys, a Girl and a Pizza Place; Jesse starring her Married…with Children costar Christina Applegate (1999); Jessie (2011); and Ladies Man. In 2005, she directed The Sperm Donor, a pilot for NBC starring Maggie Wheeler and In 2006, Bearse teamed with Rosie O’Donnell to direct The Big Gay Sketch Show, which debuted on Logo on April 24, 2007.

Personal life

Bearse was born in Winter Park, Florida, and was also raised in Atlanta, Georgia.[1] She first attended Winter Park High School and Rollins College, but later transferred to Birmingham Southern College and Young Harris College, where she received an A.A. (Associate of Arts). She has been publicly out as a lesbian since 1993,[2] and has an adopted daughter, Zoe.

TV and filmography

Peter Wyngarde

Thursday, August 25th, 2016

Wikipedia

Peter Paul Wyngarde is a French-born English actor best known for playing the character Jason King, a bestselling novelist turned sleuth, in two British television series: Department S (1969–70) and Jason King (1971–72).

Contents

Biography

Early life

Wyngarde’s birth name, birth place and date of birth are disputed.

Wyngarde is usually said to have been born in Marseilles, France,[1] although in 1960 he gave his place of birth as Singapore.[2]

His birth name was Cyril Louis Goldbert. His father Henry P. Goldbert was born in Russia, and later became a naturalised British citizen in Singapore.[3] His mother was French, and his uncle was the French actor Louis Jouvet. Some sources say Cyril Goldbert was not Wyngarde’s real birth name, just a joke he made with an interviewer, but the author J. G. Ballard has written that he and his family knew Wyngarde as Cyril Goldbert when they were interned in during World War II.[4][5][6][7][8]

According to Ballard’s autobiography Miracles of Life, “[Cyril Goldbert], the future Peter Wyngarde … was four years older than me…”[4] Ballard was born in November 1930, giving Wyngarde as estimated birth year of 1926. However according to records compiled in 1943 at the Lunghwa Camp where Ballard and Wyngarde were both detained, Cyril Goldbert was born in 1928.[9] Immigration records from Wyngarde’s arrival in the UK in 1945 say he was 18 at the time, with a birth year of 1927, and his appearance on the 1948 electoral roll for people aged 21 and over, suggests a date of birth of 1927 at the latest. Immigration and travel records from Wyngarde’s trip to the USA in 1960 give a birth year of 1929. Wyngarde himself says he was born in 1933 and some sources use this date.[10][11]

Due to Henry Goldbert’s work with the British Diplomatic Service Wyngarde’s childhood was spent in a number of different countries. In 1941, while his parents were away in India, he went to stay with a Swiss family in Shanghai. The Japanese Army took over Shanghai’s International Settlement on 8 December 1941, and as a British citizen Goldbert was interned in the Lunghua civilian internment camp on 10 April 1943.[12] His younger half-siblings, Adolphe (later Henry) Goldbert (1930-2011)[13] and Marion Colette Simone Goldbert, later Wells (1932-2012),[14] were under Swiss protection and thus exempt from internment.[9][14][15]

Acting career: 1940s to 1970s

Still called Cyril Goldbert at the time, Wyngarde arrived in the UK in December 1945, sailing from Shanghai on the Cunard White Star Line vessel the Arawa.[16]

By 1946, he was a professional actor under the name of Peter Wyngarde. He took an an early role of Morris Albert in a production of Noel Coward‘s “Present Laughter” which opened on 7 August 1947 at the Theatre Royal, Birmingham, when he was 18 years old.[17] By 1948, he had formally changed his name to Peter Wyngarde.[18]

From the mid-1950s Wyngarde had roles in feature films, television plays and television series guest appearances. One of these, a television adaptation of Julien Green‘s novel South (1959, originally Sud), in which Wyngarde featured in a lead role, is thought to be the earliest television play with an overtly homosexual theme.[19] He appeared as Pausanias opposite Richard Burton in the film Alexander the Great (1956), played a lead role in the film The Siege of Sidney Street (1960), and appeared as Sir Roger Casement in an episode in the Granada TV’s On Trial series produced by Peter Wildeblood. Wyngarde’s other film work was limited but had impact. In Jack Clayton‘s The Innocents (1961), he had brief (unspeaking) scenes as the leering Peter Quint with Deborah Kerr and Pamela Franklin. The following year he was the lead actor in the occult thriller Night of the Eagle.

By the late 1960s, he was a regular guest star on many of the popular UK series of the day — many of which were espionage adventure series — including The Avengers, The Saint, The Baron, Sherlock Holmes, The Champions, The Troubleshooters, Love Story, I Spy and The Man In Room 17. He also played the authority figure Number Two in The Prisoner (“Checkmate“, 1967).

Wyngarde became a British household name through his starring role in the espionage series Department S (1969). His Jason King character often got the girl and as she is about to kiss him, he manages to avoid it, much to the annoyance of co-actor Joel Fabiani. After that series ended, his character, the suave womaniser Jason King, was spun off into a new action espionage series entitled Jason King (1971), which ran for one season (26 one-hour episodes). The series was sold overseas and Wyngarde briefly became an international celebrity, being mobbed by female fans in Australia. A revival in October 1973 of The King and I, featuring Wyngarde in the male lead role, and initially with Sally Ann Howes as Anna, ran for 260 performances at the Adelphi Theatre in London.[20]

Later life and career

In 1983, he appeared in the thriller Underground opposite Raymond Burr at the Royal Alexandra Theatre, Toronto, and at the Prince of Wales Theatre, London.[21]

During the 1980s and 1990s he made a number of TV appearances, including Doctor Who (Planet of Fire, 1984), Hammer House of Mystery & Suspense (1984) and The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes (1994). He also appeared as Sir Robert Knight in the film Tank Malling (1989) with Ray Winstone.

In recent years he has been a regular guest at Memorabilia, a science fiction and sporting memorabilia fair at the National Exhibition Centre in Birmingham. He appeared as a guest of Simon Dee in the Channel Four one-off revival of his chat show Dee Time in 2003. In 2007, Wyngarde participated in recording extras for a box-set of The Prisoner, including a mock interview segment titled “The Pink Prisoner”.

In January 2014 he narrated an episode of the BBC’s Timeshift documentary strand, Sherlock Holmes: The Many Faces of a Master Detective.[22] In the 2015 documentary series for Channel Four, It was Alright in the 1960s, Wyngarde expressed his unease at having to don blackface to play a Turkish man in The Saint, but said that he had done it only in the hope that a theatre director might pick him to play Othello.[23]

Music

In 1970, Wyngarde recorded an album for RCA Victor entitled simply Peter Wyngarde, featuring a single, “La Ronde De L’Amour/The Way I Cry Over You”. However, Wyngarde did not deliver a set of easy listening standards as might be expected, but a most unusual collection of spoken word/musical arrangements produced by Vic Smith and Hubert Thomas Valverde. A promo single of the track “Rape” (entitled “Peter Wyngarde Commits Rape”) was also issued in 1970.[24]

In 1998, the album was reissued on compact disc by RPM Records, now titled When Sex Leers Its Inquisitive Head. According to Wyngarde himself (quoted in the liner notes of the CD re-issue), prior to the RCA deal, EMI Records had also been interested in cashing in on his fame and suggested issuing an album of him performing a selection of Sinatra songs. However, RCA allowed him carte blanche, assuming that the record would be a failure and could be used by them as a tax loss. However, when the initial pressings quickly sold out and it showed a profit, they declined to press any more copies.

Track listing:

  1. “Come In”
  2. “You Wonder how these Things Begin”
  3. “Rape”
  4. “La Ronde de L’amour”
  5. “Jenny Kissed Me”
  6. “Way I Cry over You”
  7. “Unknown Citizen”
  8. “It’s when I Touch You”
  9. “Hippie and the Skinhead”
  10. “Try to Remember to Forget (Riviera Cowboy)”
  11. “Jenny Kissed Me and it Was…”
  12. “Widdecombe Fair”
  13. “Neville Thumbcatch”
  14. “Once Again (Flight Number Ten)”
  15. “Pay No Attention”
  16. “April”

Filmography

Sultan of Brunei

Monday, August 22nd, 2016

Wikipedia

Hassanal Bolkiah, GCB GCMG (full name: Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Waddaulah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Haji Omar Ali Saifuddien Sa’adul Khairi Waddien; born 15 July 1946) is the 29th and current Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei. He is also the first and incumbent Prime Minister of Brunei. The eldest son of Sir Muda Omar Ali Saifuddien III and Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak (Queen) Damit, he succeeded to the throne as the Sultan of Brunei, following the abdication of his father on 4 October 1967.

The Sultan has been ranked among the wealthiest individuals in the world; Forbes estimated the Sultan’s total peak net worth at US$20 billion in 2008.

Contents

Early years and education

The Sultan was born on 15 July 1946 in Brunei Town (now called Bandar Seri Begawan) as Pengiran Muda (Crown Prince) Hassanal Bolkiah. The Sultan received high school education at Victoria Institution in Kuala Lumpur, after which he attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in the United Kingdom.

Ascension to the throne

He became the Sultan of Brunei Darussalam on 5 October 1967, after his father abdicated. His coronation was held on 1 August 1968, and made him the Yang di-Pertuan (Head of State) of Brunei. Like his father, he has been knighted by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, of which Brunei was a protectorate until 1984.

Political role as Sultan

Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah with the former President of the People’s Republic of China, Hu Jintao.

Under Brunei’s 1959 constitution, the Sultan is the head of state with full executive authority, including emergency powers since 1962. On 9 March 2006, the Sultan was reported to have amended Brunei’s constitution to make himself infallible under Bruneian law.[1] Bolkiah, as Prime Minister, is also the head of government. In addition, he holds the portfolios both of Minister of Defence and Minister of Finance. As Minister of Defence he is therefore the Supreme Commander of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces, as well as an Honorary General in the British and Indonesian armed forces and an Honorary Admiral of the Fleet in the Royal Navy. He appointed himself as Inspector General of Police (IGP) of the Royal Brunei Police Force.

Bolkiah addressed the United Nations General Assembly on Brunei Darussalam‘s admission to the United Nations in September 1984. In 1991, he introduced a conservative ideology to Brunei called Melayu Islam Beraja (Malay Islamic Monarchy, MIB), which presents the monarchy as the defender of the faith.[2] He has recently favoured Brunei government democratisation and declared himself Prime Minister and President. In 2004, the Legislative Council, which had been dissolved since 1962, was reopened.[3]

His designated successor is his eldest son, Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah.

The Sultan’s official residence is the Istana Nurul Iman, with 1,788 rooms, 257 bathrooms, and a floor area of 2,152,782 square feet (200,000 m2; 20 ha). The Istana also houses several offices of government, including that of the Office of the Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan, the Office of the Grand Chamberlain, as well as the offices within the Prime Minister’s Department. Parts of the Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Finance are also located at the palace. The Crown Prince, who is the Senior Minister, works from offices at the Istana. Hyatt Borneo Management Services and HM The Sultan’s flight maintain offices there.

Brunei during Hassanal Bolkiah’s sultanate

Development of education system

The University of Brunei Darussalam and Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University (UNISSA) were established. Technical and vocational institutions were also built, such as the Institute of Technology Brunei, Sultan Saiful Rijal Technical College, and vocational schools.

The religious Institute Tahfiz Al-Quran Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah was established. Scholarships for study in the country and abroad were provided. As of 2012 there were 106,000 students, of whom more than 3,600 were students at the University.

Defence and security developments

The Royal Brunei Armed Forces were expanded with the establishment of three major branches of the Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy and Royal Brunei Air Force.

Health, welfare and community services

Medicines and medical treatment are free of charge to children, policemen and members of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces in hospitals and government clinics, and subject to a small charge for others.

There is one doctor per 949 patients. The life expectancy of the people and the country’s population is 74.2 years for men and 77.3 years for women.

Other facilities offered include various National Housing Plan Scheme (RPN), Land Allocation Scheme, the additional monthly pension on the elderly, subsistence allowances for widows and people with disabilities.

Hassanal Bolkiah established the Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Foundation (YSHHB).

In January 2013, the Royal College of General Practitioners created the honour of ‘Companion of the College’ to mark its 60th anniversary. The Sultan became the first recipient of this award in recognition of the work he has done to promote healthcare in Brunei and abroad. An auditorium in the College’s headquarters at 30 Euston Square, London – where the Sultan was inaugurated – was also named in his honour.[4]

Foreign affairs

Brunei Darussalam is a member of various international and regional organisations such as ASEAN, Commonwealth, the Organisation of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). Hassanal Bolkiah was chairman of Summit APEC Leaders in 2000 when Brunei Darussalam hosted the summit. Hassanal Bolkiah was also the chairman of ASEAN Summit in 2013 when Brunei Darussalam hosted the summit.

Membership of international organisations

Hassanal Bolkiah attended various meetings of international organisations.

Brunei Darussalam:

  • is a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1984 as a member of the 6th. Hassanal Bolkiah presided over the meeting of the 7th ASEAN when Brunei hosted the meeting of ASEAN Heads of Government in 2001.
  • became a member of the United Nations (UN) on 21 September 1984, during the 39th session of the General Assembly.
  • has a long-standing relationship with the United Kingdom, and joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1984. As a contributor to the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Cooperation, the country benefits from training in commerce, industry and human resource development.
  • joined the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) in 1984.
  • has been a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) since it was established in 1989. Hassanal Bolkiah was the chairman of the APEC Leaders Meeting in 2000.
  • became a member of the National Organisation of Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) in September 1992.

Religious affairs

Hassanal Bolkiah is Head of Religion, and Islam is the official religion of the country. Mosques, surau and stations were built across the country. The Sultan decreed that Islamic celebrations such as Early Years Celebration Prophet’s birthday, Isra and Miraj and Nuzul Al Quran are celebrated on a large scale. He often attends mosques and surau throughout the country for the obligatory Friday prayers.

In 2014, Hassanal Bolkiah has also advocated Islamic Penal Code, which include adultery is to be punished with death by stoning given there is only enough evidences pointing to the action (i.e. with 4 trusted, impartial, and truthful witnesses in attendance). Without 4 qualified witnesses, there will be no stoning.

Hassanal Bolkiah also banned public celebrations of Christmas in 2015, including wearing hats or clothes that resemble Santa Claus. The ban only affects local Muslims.[5] Christians are still allowed to celebrate Christmas. In fact according to Bruneian Bishop Cornelius Sim, on 25 December 2015, there were around estimated 4,000 out of 18,000 Bruneian Catholics (mainly Chinese and expats living in the country) attending the mass on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day. While there was no absolute ban on celebrations, there was a ban affecting Christmas decorations in public places, especially shopping malls but not affecting small stores and private residences including churches.[6]

Economy

There have been national economic development plans; oil and gas remain the main source of national income. Steps are being made to establish a petrochemical industry.

In the Islamic banking sector, Brunei Islamic Trust Fund (TAIB) was established on 29 September 1991, while in 2006, the Islamic Bank of Brunei (IBB) and the Islamic Development Bank of Brunei (IDBB) consolidated into Bank Islam Brunei Darussalam (BIBD) with total assets of US$5 billion.

Marriage and family

The Sultan married his first cousin and first wife, Pengiran Anak Saleha or Princess Saleha, later became the Raja Isteri or Queen. His former second wife, Aisha Mariam (the former Pengiran Isteri), was a former flight attendant for the national carrier, Royal Brunei Airlines. He divorced her in 2003, stripping her of all her royal titles. In August 2005, her place was taken by a former Malaysian TV3 presenter, Azrinaz Mazhar Hakim, who is 33 years younger than the Sultan. They divorced in 2010, and as with Hajah Mariam, the Sultan stripped her of all titles, honours, and monthly allowance. The divorce was announced on Radio Television Brunei by the Grand Chamberlain.[7]

Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah is the current Pengiran Muda Mahkota (“Crown Prince“) and the Sultan’s heir, as the eldest son of the Sultan and Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha. As of 2012, Hassanal Bolkiah has five sons and seven daughters with his three wives.

Saleha, the Queen Consort of Brunei.

Issue

Name Birth Marriage
Date | Spouse
Their Children
Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak (Queen Consort) Hajah Saleha
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Hajah Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah 26 July 1969 Pengiran Maharaja Setia Laila di-Raja Sahibul Irshad Pengiran Anak Haji ‘Abdu’l Rahim bin Al Marhum Pengiran Indera Mahkota Pengiran Anak Dr. Kemaluddin Al-Haj Pengiran Anak Raheemah Sanaul Bolkiah
Pengiran Anak Hariisah Widadul Bolqiah
Pengiran Anak ‘Abdul Raqiib
Pengiran Anak ‘Abdul Haseeb
Pengiran Anak Raqeeqah Raayatul Bolqiah
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Hajah Muta-Wakkilah Hayatul Bolkiah 12 October 1971
Haji Al-Muhtadee Pengiran Muda Mahkota Pengiran Muda (Crown Prince) Al-Muhtadee Billah 17 February 1974 Paduka Seri Pengiran Anak Isteri Pengiran Anak Sarah binti Pengiran Haji Salleh Ab-Rahaman Pengiran Muda Abdul Muntaqim
(b. 17 March 2008)
Pengiran Anak Muneerah Madhul Bolkiah
(b. 2 January 2011)
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Hajah Majeedah Nuurul Bolkiah 16 March 1976 Y.A.M. Pengiran Anak Khairul Khalil bin Pengiran Syed Haji Jaafari Pengiran Anak ‘Abdul Hafeez
(b. 18 March 2008)
Pengiran Anak Raihaanah Hanaa-Ul Bolqiah
(b. 6 January 2010)
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Hajah Hafizah Sururul Bolkiah 12 March 1980 Y.A.M. Pengiran Anak Haji Mohammad Ruzaini bin Pengiran Dr. Haji Mohammad Yakub Pengiran Anak Muhammad Za’eem
(b. 3 August 2013)
Pengiran Muda (Prince) Abdul Malik 30 June 1983 Y.A.M Pengiran Anak Isteri Pengiran Rabiatul Adawiyah Binti Pengiran Haji Bolkiah Y.A.M Pengiran Anak Muhee’ah Raayatul Bolqiah
(b. 2 March 2016)
Hajah Mariam (1982-2003) Divorced[7]
Pengiran Muda (Prince) Haji Abdul Azim 29 July 1982
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Azemah Ni’matul Bolkiah 26 September 1984
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Fadzillah Lubabul Bolkiah 23 August 1985
Pengiran Muda (Prince) Abdul Mateen 10 August 1991
Azrinaz Mazhar (2005-2010) Divorced
Pengiran Muda (Prince) Abdul Wakeel 1 June 2006
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Ameerah Wardatul Bolkiah 28 January 2008

He also has 10 grandchildren.[8][9]

Titles, styles and honours

Styles of
The Sultan of Brunei
Personal Emblem of the Sultan of Brunei.svg
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Kebawah Duli Tuan Patik

In Malay the Sultan’s full title is Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Waddaulah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Haji Omar ‘Ali Saifuddien Sa’adul Khairi Waddien, Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Negara Brunei Darussalam.[10]

Academic honours

The Sultan received an honorary doctorate at the Moscow State University for International Relations (MGIMO), 2005.[11] He has also been awarded an Honorary Doctor of Law degree from the University of Oxford, England, and an Honorary Doctor of Letters degree from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland. He received an Honorary Doctorate from the Chulalongkorn University of Thailand. In 2003, he received an Honorary Doctorate Degree in Humanities and Culture from Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Yogyakarta, Indonesia.[12] On 27 January 2005, he was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Laws by the National University of Singapore.[13] On 14 April 2011, he was conferred the Honorary Doctorate of Law by King’s College London.[14] The scroll for the honorary doctorate was presented by Lord Duoro, the chairman of the Council of King’s College London. He was awarded with an honorary doctorate in philosophy and humanities on 21 April 2011 from Universitas Indonesia, one of the oldest universities in Asia having been established 160 years ago.[15]

Military honours

The Sultan holds an honorary commission in the Royal Air Force of the United Kingdom as an Air Marshal.[16] He is also an Honorary Admiral of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom,[17] a title given to him by Queen Elizabeth II when he took the salute at the passing out parade of the 2001 summer term at Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, the Royal Navy’s officer-training school in the United Kingdom. He has an English residence at Binfield Manor in Berkshire.

In April 2008, he was made an honorary member of the Indonesian Satgas Atbara Special Operations Unit. He holds the rank of Honorary Colonel of Pakistan‘s Special Service Group (SSG), awarded to him during his visit to the Pakistan Army‘s SSG headquarters at Cherat.[18] He possesses red beret and paratrooper wings of the Black Hawk paratroopers, presented to him by the Indian Army during his state visit to India.

Other honours

In January 2013, the Royal College of General Practitioners inaugurated the Sultan as the first Companion of the College for services to healthcare in Brunei and abroad.[4]

Controversies

AMADEO crisis

He had open disagreements with his brother, Jefri Bolkiah, who owned a network of companies and investment vehicles under the name “Amadeo” run by his son, Prince Hakim, which was used to buy the luxury goods company Asprey and build an amusement park and other projects in Brunei.[19] In July 1998 the Amadeo group collapsed under US$10 billion in debt.[20] Between 1983 and mid-1998 some US$40 billion of what were called “special transfers” were made from the accounts of the Brunei Investment Agency (BIA).[21] An independent investigation was undertaken into the circumstances of these special transfers, concluding that in round figures, US$14.8 billion were paid to the accounts of Prince Jefri apart from the US$8 billion to accounts of the Sultan and US$3.8 billion for Government purposes.The destination, purpose and recipients of the remaining transfers were not established.[21] Due to the secretive nature of the state and the blurred lines as to where the royal family’s finances and the state finances began and ended, establishing the true course of events is very difficult.[19]

Prince Jefri was accused of misappropriating state funds to pay for his own personal investments, bought through BIA and Amadeo companies and removed from his position as head of BIA.[22][23] In February 2000 the Bruneian government attempted to obtain a freezing order on Prince Jefri’s overseas assets, which led to him countersuing in New York.[22] Following protracted negotiations a settlement agreement was signed by the Prince in May 2000,[21] the terms of which were never made public.[20] However, Prince Jefri claimed assurances were made to him by the Sultan with regards to keeping certain properties to maintain his lifestyle, which BIA denied.[20][21] In accordance with the settlement agreement signed in 2000, the prince began to return his assets to the state, including more than 500 properties, both in Brunei and abroad, about 2500 cars, 100 paintings, five boats, and nine aircraft.[20] In 2001 ten thousand lots of Prince Jefri’s possessions went to auction.[24]

However, the BIA alleged that the Prince failed to uphold the agreement by failing to disclose all his accounts, and allowing money to be taken from frozen accounts,[25] and restarted legal proceedings to gain full control of the Prince’s assets. After a number of appeals,[26] this finally reached the Privy Council in London, which can serve as Brunei’s highest court of appeal as a result of Brunei’s former protectorate status.[27] The Privy Council rejected Prince Jefri’s evidence, describing his contention that the agreement allowed for him to retain a number of properties as “simply incredible”,[28] and ruled in favour of the Government of Brunei and the BIA; consequently the Prince’s appeal was dismissed and he was ordered to return the rest of his assets to Brunei.[21] The decision of the Privy Council did not end the litigation between Prince Jefri and the BIA. The BIA re-opened proceedings in Malaysia and the Cayman Islands, resulting in the BIA gaining control over the Hotel Bel-Air in Los Angeles and The New York Palace Hotel in Manhattan.[29]

The BIA also re-opened collateral litigation in the High Court of England and Wales. After winning before the Privy Council, the BIA asked the court to determine whether Prince Jefri should be held in contempt of court for allegedly making misstatements in his listing of assets. The contempt proceeding was scheduled for a hearing in June 2008, but the Prince did not attend, instead going to Paris.[25][30] Judge Peter Smith did not rule on whether Prince Jefri was in contempt, but did issue a warrant for his arrest.[31] As of November 2010, the warrant still appears to be in place, meaning the Prince will be arrested if he enters the UK.[32]

As of October 2009, Prince Jefri appears to have been allowed back to Brunei. He is not back in any official government role but retains all his royal titles and decorations and remains in the royal protocol order. He is seen at major national functions like the national teachers day celebrations, the Sultan’s birthday and at the National Day Celebrations. His most recent appearance was at The Legco (Legislative Council) opening ceremony in March 2012.[33]

Interests

The Sultan is passionate about cars. The royal family always maintains a collection of over 100 cars and the palace has the underground garage to accommodate them. Apart from this he once owned one of the largest private car collections in the world with about 2500 cars which his brother Jefri Bolkiah bought for himself,the Sultan and other members of the royal family to entertain their car passion. The car collection and Prince Jefri’s other indulgences blew through billions and ultimately landed him in trouble and the royal family in financial crisis resulting the car collection to be left abandoned and most of the cars were beyond saving and rest were auctioned.[34]

The Sultan’s involvement in sports includes playing polo, golf, and badminton. He also enjoys race car driving, piloting helicopters, and aircraft. On international trips, he pilots his own Boeing 747-400.[35] He is also very fond of gold and has a Rolls-Royce coated with 24k gold.

He often enjoys fine cigars, and has a notable favourite, the Gurkha Centurian, that was commissioned specifically for him.[36]

His primary residence, the 1,800-room palace Istana Nurul Iman, is considered the world’s largest private residence.[37][38]

Posts

Personal emblem of the Sultan of Brunei

The Sultan is the Prime Minister, Minister of Defence, Minister of Finance, Head of Islam (Caliph), Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Head of Customs, Supreme Commander of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces and the Inspector General of the Royal Brunei Police Force.

Honorary awards

He has been awarded :[39]

Brunei honorary awards

N.B. * decoration founded by the sultan on 1 August 1968 ; ** = decoration founded by the sultan on 15 August 1982

Malaysia honorary awards

 Malaysia :

 Johor :

 Kelantan :

 Negeri Sembilan :

 Pahang :

 Perak :

 Perlis :

 Selangor :

 Terengganu :

 Sarawak : DUBS of Sarawak (9 March 1989)

Foreign honorary awards

Ancestry

Caroline, Princess of Hanover

Monday, August 22nd, 2016

Wikipedia

Caroline, Princess of Hanover (Caroline Louise Marguerite; born 23 January 1957), is the eldest child of Rainier III, Prince of Monaco, and American actress, Grace Kelly. She is the elder sister of Prince Albert II and Princess Stéphanie. Until the births of her niece and nephew Princess Gabriella and Prince Jacques of Monaco in December 2014 she had been heir presumptive to the throne of Monaco since 2005, a position which she previously held from 1957 to 1958.

Caroline is married to Ernst August, Prince of Hanover (born 1954), the heir to the former throne of the Kingdom of Hanover,[4] as well as the genealogical heir male of George III of the United Kingdom.

Contents

Family and early life

Caroline was born on 23 January 1957 in the Prince’s Palace, Monaco. She is the eldest child of Rainier III, Prince of Monaco, and his wife, former American actress Grace Kelly. Christened Caroline Louise Marguerite, she belongs to the House of Grimaldi. She was the heir presumptive from her birth to 14 March 1958, when her brother Prince Albert was born. On 1 February 1965, her younger sister Princess Stéphanie was born. Caroline is a legitimate patrilineal descendant of the Dukes of Polignac, and as such belongs to the historical French nobility. Through her mother, she is of Irish and German descent.[5][6]

As a child, she spent some of her time at the home of her maternal grandparents John B. Kelly, Sr. and Margaret Major in Philadelphia. In an interview for People in April 1982, shortly before her death, Grace described Caroline and Stéphanie as “warm, bright, amusing, intelligent and capable girls. They’re very much in tune with their era. Besides being good students, they are good athletes – excellent skiers and swimmers. Both can cook and sew and play the piano and ride a horse. But, above all, my children are good sports, conscious of their position and considerate of others. They are sympathetic to the problems and concerns in the world today.”[7] Princess Grace died on 14 September 1982, the day after suffering a stroke while driving her car, as she and Princess Stéphanie were returning home to Monaco from a visit to France; resulting in an accident in which both were injured.

Education

The princess received her French baccalauréat in 1974 with honors. She was also educated at St Mary’s School Ascot. Caroline continued her studies at the Sorbonne University, where she received a diploma in philosophy and minors in psychology and biology.[8] She is fluent in French, English, Spanish, German and Italian.[9]

Official appearances

Princess Caroline and Albert, then Hereditary Prince of Monaco, with Ronald and Nancy Reagan in Washington D.C. on 28 March 1983

In 1979, Princess Caroline was appointed by her father as the president of the Monegasque Committee for the International Year of the Child. Two years later, in 1981, she founded her own foundation Jeune J’écoute.[8] Other philanthropic organizations Caroline has been involved with include the World Association of Children’s Friends (AMADE),[10] the Princess Grace Foundation,[11] the Prince Pierre Foundation,[12] the Peter Le Marchant Trust and UNICEF. Her other patronages include the International School of Paris,[13] Les Ballets de Monte Carlo, which she also founded,[14] the Monte-Carlo Philharmonic Orchestra,[15] the Association des Guides et Scouts de Monaco, the Monte Carlo Garden Club and The Spring Arts Festival.

Following her mother’s death in 1982, Caroline served as de facto first lady of Monaco until her brother married Charlene Wittstock in 2011.[16][17] She regularly attends important social events in Monaco related to the Monegasque Princely Family, such as the National Day celebrations,[18] the annual Rose Ball,[19] the Red Cross Ball and the Formula One competition Monaco Grand Prix.[20]

Due to her commitment to philanthropy and arts, Caroline was named a UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador on 2 December 2003.[21] The UNICEF honoured her with Children’s Champion Award on 20 May 2006. The next year, she travelled to the Republic of South Africa to meet its former president Nelson Mandela.[22] In December 2011, the World Association of Children’s Friends honoured her for “tireless endeavours in continuing the organisation’s legacy”. Her personal friend and the Chanel head designer Karl Lagerfeld presented her the award.[23] Caroline had also previously been given the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Charles, and had been appointed as the Commander of the Order of Cultural Merit.[24]

Personal and media life

Monegasque Princely FamilyGreat coat of arms of the house of Grimaldi.svg
HSH The Prince
HSH The Princess


HRH The Princess of Hanover
HSH Princess Stéphanie

Caroline’s personal interests include horseback riding, swimming and skiing.[8] Since her youth, she has been considered an international fashion icon and as one of the best dressed women in the world.[25][26] In November 2011, an exhibition honouring Princess Caroline was opened at the National Museum of Monaco.[27]

Caroline was romantically linked to many famous men, including Mark Shand, the younger brother of Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall; Guillermo Vilas; Sebastian Taylor, who had previously dated Princess Elizabeth of Yugoslavia; Jonathan Guinness, the son of Jonathan Guinness, 3rd Baron Moyne;[28] Henri Giscard d’Estaing, the son of former President of France Valéry Giscard d’Estaing; and French singer Philippe Lavil.[9] Following her divorce from Philippe Junot, she was briefly engaged to Robertino Rossellini, the son of Roberto Rossellini and Ingrid Bergman. Between her second and third marriages, Caroline had a relationship with French actor Vincent Lindon.[29]

First marriage

Princess Caroline’s first husband was Philippe Junot (born 19 April 1940), a Parisian banker. They were married civilly in Monaco on 28 June 1978, and religiously on 29 June 1978.[30] Their lavish wedding ceremony was attended by some 65 guests, including Hollywood stars Ava Gardner, Cary Grant and Frank Sinatra.[31]

The couple divorced, childless, on 9 October 1980. In 1992, the Roman Catholic Church granted the princess a canonical annulment.

Second marriage

Her second husband was Stefano Casiraghi (8 September 1960 – 3 October 1990), the sportsman heir to an Italian industrial fortune. They were married civilly in Monaco on 29 December 1983, and had three children:

The two younger children are named for their maternal great-grandparents, Princess Charlotte and Prince Pierre, whilst Andrea was named for a childhood friend of his father’s. Stefano Casiraghi was killed in a speed-boating accident in 1990, aged 30 years.

Despite their parents’ not having married in the Church as required for legitimacy under church law, they were legitimised by Pope John Paul II in February 1993, eight months after their mother’s marriage to Junot was annulled in June 1992.

Third marriage

Caroline’s third and present husband is Prince Ernst August of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick, head of the House of Hanover which lost its throne in 1866.[4] From 1913 to 1918, his family ruled the sovereign Duchy of Brunswick.

The couple married in Monaco on 23 January 1999. Ernst August had previously divorced his first wife Chantal Hochuli, with whom he had sons Prince Ernst August and Prince Christian, and who had been Caroline’s friend.

The couple has one daughter together:

Her husband’s title as Duke of Brunswick is honorific since the ruling family of that state was removed by the Weimar Republic in 1918, along with all royal and noble German ruling families, which were still allowed to retain their titles. Neither she nor her husband has royal rank in Germany, but Monaco recognizes the Hanoverians’ former German royal titles, attributing to the couple the style of Royal Highness. On 11 January 1999, shortly before Caroline and Ernst’s wedding, his fourth cousin once removed (George III was their common ancestor), Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, issued this Order in Council, “My Lords, I do hereby declare My Consent to a Contract of Matrimony between His Royal Highness Prince Ernst August Albert of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg and Her Serene Highness Princess Caroline Louise Marguerite of Monaco…”. As a legitimate male-line descendant of George III, Ernst August is subject to the Royal Marriages Act 1772: Without the Queen’s Royal Assent, the marriage would have been void in Britain, where Ernst August’s family owned substantial property and he holds (dual) citizenship.[4]

Likewise, the Monégasque court officially notified France of Caroline’s contemplated marriage to Prince Ernst August and received assurance that there was no objection, in compliance with Article 2 of the 1918 Franco-Monégasque Treaty.[33] Despite obtaining the official approval of the governments of France, Monaco and the United Kingdom, upon Caroline’s marriage to Ernst August he forfeited his own place in Britain’s order of succession. He is also subject to the Act of Settlement 1701, which imposes that consequence upon British dynasts who marry Roman Catholics.[4]

In 2009, it was reported that Caroline had separated from Ernst August and returned to live in Monaco.[34][35]

In January 2010, photos emerged of Ernst August kissing a woman who was not identified as Caroline, leading press to speculate that the couple are divorcing.[36]

Princess Caroline’s residence is the Villa Clos St Pierre in Monaco-ville where she lives with her youngest child, Princess Alexandra.[37]

Defence of privacy

Caroline has had a bad relationship with media and paparazzi since her youth, when she complained she “could not live the life of a normal student”.[38] On 24 June 2004, the Princess obtained a judgement from the European Court of Human Rights condemning Germany for non-respect of her right to private life under Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights.[39] The case concerned, for instance, the publication of pictures of her taken secretly at the Beach Club in Monte Carlo, but the lack of implementation of the European Court of Human Rights judgement in Germany led to a second round of proceedings before the Strasbourg Court. This time five NGOs filed their observations in support of paparazzi, and the Princess lost her case.[40][41]

Succession issues

Princess Caroline was heir presumptive to the crown of Monaco until the birth of her brother’s legitimate children.

There is precedent for a Monégasque prince to adopt his own illegitimate child and thereby place that child at the head of the line of succession to the Monegasque throne, as was done for Caroline’s grandmother, Princess Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois.[42] However, because of changes to the constitution of Monaco in 2002, this was no longer an option.[43]

Albert’s lack of legitimate children until the 2010s prompted Prince Rainier III to change the constitution so as to ensure there would be a successor to the throne, which strengthened the places of Caroline and her descendants in the line of succession. On 2 April 2002, Monaco passed Princely Law 1.249, which provides that if the Sovereign Prince assumes the throne and then dies without a legitimate direct heir, the throne will pass to his dynastic siblings and their descendants according to the rule of male-preference cognatic primogeniture. The law was then ratified by France, as required by a 1918 Franco-Monégasque Treaty, on 4 October 2005.[43] Before this change, the crown of Monaco could pass only to a descendant of the last reigning prince, excluding such collateral relations as siblings, nephews, and nieces.

Titles, styles and honours

Titles and styles

  • 23 January 1957 – 14 March 1958: Her Serene Highness The Hereditary Princess of Monaco
  • 14 March 1958 – 28 June 1978: Her Serene Highness Princess Caroline of Monaco
  • 28 June 1978 – 9 October 1980: Her Serene Highness Princess Caroline, Mrs Junot
  • 6 October 1980 – 29 December 1983: Her Serene Highness Princess Caroline of Monaco
  • 29 December 1983 – 23 January 1999: Her Serene Highness Princess Caroline, Mrs Casiraghi
  • 23 January 1999 – 6 April 2005: Her Royal Highness The Princess of Hanover
  • 6 April 2005 – 10 December 2014: Her Royal Highness The Princess of Hanover, Hereditary Princess of Monaco
  • 10 December 2014 – Present: Her Royal Highness The Princess of Hanover

Contrary to usage in most other monarchies, not only is the heir apparent to the Monégasque throne titled Hereditary Prince, but whenever there is no heir apparent the heir presumptive legally bears the title of Hereditary Prince (ss). Therefore, Caroline first became the Hereditary Princess of Monaco at birth. From the birth of her only brother until his accession to the throne as Albert II, she was legally Princess Caroline of Monaco; at Albert’s accession she resumed the position of heir presumptive. So long as Prince Albert remained without legitimate issue, Princess Caroline remained first in line to succeed him on the throne. However, Albert’s legitimate children displaced her in the line of succession.

In Monaco and other monarchies, Caroline is usually referred to and addressed by the female form of the higher style attributed (by tradition) to her husband, i.e. “Her Royal Highness The Princess of Hanover“, rather than by her own legal but lower title that, until 10 December 2014, was “Her Serene Highness The Hereditary Princess of Monaco“. Historically, styles associated with kingdoms, such as Ernst August’s, have been deemed of higher rank and status than those associated with principalities.[44]

Honours

See also List of honours of the Monegasque Princely Family by country

National Honours

Foreign Honours

Awards

Ranks

Military

International

Ancestry

Arms and Monograms

Armoiries de Caroline de Monaco princesse de Hanovre.svg
Alliance Coat of Arms of Prince Ernst and
Princess Caroline of Hanover

Royal Monogram of Princess Caroline of Monaco.svg
Royal Monogram of
Princess Caroline
Dual Cypher of Ernst August and Caroline of Monaco.svg
Dual Cypher of Prince Ernst
and Princess Caroline

Pope Francis

Monday, August 22nd, 2016

Wikipedia

Pope Francis (Latin: Franciscus; Italian: Francesco; Spanish: Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio,[b] 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as Bishop of Rome, and Sovereign of the Vatican City. He chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Francis is the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere and the first non-European pope since the Syrian Gregory III, who died in 741.

Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio worked briefly as a chemical technologist and nightclub bouncer[2] before beginning seminary studies. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969, and from 1973 to 1979 was Argentina’s provincial superior of the Society of Jesus. He was accused of handing two priests to the National Reorganization Process during the Dirty War, but the lawsuit was ultimately dismissed. He became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998, and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. He led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina, and the administrations of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered him a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, a papal conclave elected Bergoglio as his successor on 13 March.

Throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God’s mercy, concern for the poor, and commitment to interfaith dialogue. He is credited with having a humble, less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors, for instance choosing to reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae guesthouse rather than in the papal apartments of the Apostolic Palace used by his predecessors. In addition, due to both his Jesuit and Ignatian aesthetic, he is known for favoring simpler vestments void of ornamentation, including refusing the traditional papal mozzetta cape upon his election, choosing silver instead of gold for his piscatory ring, and keeping the same pectoral cross he had as Cardinal. He maintains that the church should be more open and welcoming. He does not support unbridled capitalism, Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology. Francis maintains the traditional views of the church regarding abortion, euthanasia, contraception, homosexuality, ordination of women, and priestly celibacy. He opposes consumerism, irresponsible development, and supports taking action on climate change, a focus of his papacy with the promulgation of Laudato si’. In international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Cuba.

Contents

Early years

Jorge Mario Bergoglio (fourth boy from the left on the third row from the top) at age 12, while studying at the Salesian College.

Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born on 17 December 1936 in Flores,[3] a neighborhood of Buenos Aires. He was the eldest[4] of five children of Mario José Bergoglio (1908–1959) and Regina María Sívori (1911–1981). Mario Bergoglio was an Italian immigrant accountant[5] born in Portacomaro (Province of Asti) in Italy’s Piedmont region. Regina Sívori[6] was a housewife born in Buenos Aires to a family of northern Italian (Piedmontese-Genoese) origin.[7][8][9] Mario José’s family left Italy in 1929, to escape the fascist rule of Benito Mussolini.[10] María Elena Bergoglio, the Pope’s only living sibling, confirmed that their emigration was not for economic reasons.[11] His other siblings were Alberto Horacio, Oscar Adrián and Marta Regina.[12] Two great-nephews, Antonio and Joseph, died in a traffic collision.[13][14]

In the sixth grade, Bergoglio attended Wilfrid Barón de los Santos Ángeles, a school of the Salesians of Don Bosco, in Ramos Mejía, Buenos Aires. He attended the technical secondary school Escuela Técnica Industrial N° 27 Hipólito Yrigoyen,[15] named after a past President of Argentina, and graduated with a chemical technician’s diploma.[16][17] He worked for a few years in that capacity in the foods section at Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory[18] where his boss was Esther Ballestrino. Before joining the Jesuits, Bergoglio worked as a bar bouncer and as a janitor sweeping floors, and he also ran tests in a chemical laboratory.[19][20]

In the only known health crisis of his youth, at the age of 21 he suffered from life-threatening pneumonia and three cysts. He had part of a lung excised shortly afterwards.[15][21] Bergoglio has been a lifelong supporter of San Lorenzo de Almagro football club.[22] Bergoglio is also a fan of the films of Tita Merello,[23] neorealism, and tango dancing, with an “intense fondness” for the traditional music of Argentina and Uruguay known as the milonga.[23]

Pre-papal career, 1958–2013

Jesuit (1960–92)

Bergoglio found his vocation to the priesthood while he was on his way to celebrate the Spring Day. He passed by a church to go to confession, and was inspired by the priest.[25] Bergoglio studied at the archdiocesan seminary, Inmaculada Concepción Seminary, in Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires, and, after three years, entered the Society of Jesus as a novice on 11 March 1958.[23] Bergoglio has said that, as a young seminarian, he had a crush on a girl he met and briefly doubted about continuing the religious career.[26] As a Jesuit novice he studied humanities in Santiago, Chile.[27] At the conclusion of his novitiate in the Society of Jesus, Bergoglio officially became a Jesuit on 12 March 1960, when he made the religious profession of the initial, perpetual vows of poverty, chastity and obedience of a member of the order.[28][29]

In 1960, Bergoglio obtained a licentiate in philosophy from the Colegio Máximo de San José in San Miguel, Buenos Aires Province. He taught literature and psychology at the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepción, a high school in Santa Fe, from 1964 to 1965. In 1966 he taught the same courses at the Colegio del Salvador in Buenos Aires.[30] In 1967, Bergoglio finished his theological studies and was ordained to the priesthood on 13 December 1969, by Archbishop Ramón José Castellano. He attended the Facultades de Filosofía y Teología de San Miguel (Philosophical and Theological Faculty of San Miguel), a seminary in San Miguel. He served as the master of novices for the province there and became a professor of theology.[31]

Bergoglio completed his final stage of spiritual training as a Jesuit, tertianship, at Alcalá de Henares, Spain. He took the final fourth vow (obedience to the pope) in the Society of Jesus on 22 April 1973.[29] He was named provincial superior of the Society of Jesus in Argentina on 31 July 1973 and served until 1979.[32] He made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1973, shortly after being named provincial superior, but his stay was shortened by the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War.[33] After the completion of his term of office, in 1980 he was named the rector of the Philosophical and Theological Faculty of San Miguel in San Miguel.[34] Before taking up this new appointment, he spent the first three months of 1980 in Ireland to learn English, staying at the Jesuit Centre at the Milltown Institute of Theology and Philosophy, Dublin.[35] After returning to Argentina to take up his new post at San Miguel, Father Bergoglio served in that capacity until 1986. He was removed as rector by the Jesuit superior-general Peter Hans Kolvenbach because Bergoglio’s policy of educating the young Jesuits in direct pastoral work and in popular religiosity was opposed to the world-wide trend in the Society of Jesus of emphasizing social justice based on sociological analysis, especially promoted by the Centro de Investigaciones y Accion Social (CIAS).[36]

He spent several months at the Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology in Frankfurt, Germany, while considering possible dissertation topics,[37] before returning to Argentina to serve as a confessor and spiritual director to the Jesuit community in Córdoba.[38] In Germany, he saw the painting Mary Untier of Knots in Augsburg and brought a copy of the painting to Argentina where it has become an important Marian devotion.[39][c] As a student at the Salesian school, Bergoglio was mentored by Ukrainian Greek Catholic priest Stefan Czmil. Bergoglio often rose hours before his classmates to serve Mass for Czmil.[42][43]

Because of continued tensions with leaders and scholars connected with the Centro de Investigaciones y Accion Social (CIAS), a sense of Bergoglio’s “dissent”, and his work as auxiliary bishop of Buenos Aires, he was asked in 1992 by Jesuit authorities not to reside in Jesuit houses.[44][45][46] From then on, he did not visit Jesuit houses until after his election as Pope.[36]

Bishop (1992–2001)

Bergoglio was named Auxiliary Bishop of Buenos Aires in 1992 and ordained on 27 June 1992 as Titular Bishop of Auca,[47] with Cardinal Antonio Quarracino, Archbishop of Buenos Aires, serving as principal consecrator.[24] He chose as his episcopal motto Miserando atque eligendo.[48] It is drawn from Saint Bede‘s homily on Matthew 9:9–13: “because he saw him through the eyes of mercy and chose him”.[49]

On 3 June 1997, Bergoglio was appointed Coadjutor Archbishop of Buenos Aires with right of automatic succession. Upon Quarracino’s death on 28 February 1998, Bergoglio became Metropolitan Archbishop of Buenos Aires. In that role, Bergoglio created new parishes and restructured the archdiocese administrative offices, led pro-life initiatives, and created a commission on divorces.[50] One of Bergoglio’s major initiatives as archbishop was to increase the Church’s presence in the slums of Buenos Aires. Under his leadership, the number of priests assigned to work in the slums doubled.[51] This work led to him being called the “Slum Bishop”.[52]

Early in his time as Archbishop of Buenos Aires, Bergoglio sold off the archdiocese’s shares in multiple banks and turned its accounts into those of a normal customer in international banks. The shares in banks had led the local church to a high leniency towards high spending, and the archdiocese was nearing bankruptcy as a result. As a normal customer of the bank, the church was forced into a higher fiscal discipline.[53]

On 6 November 1998, while remaining Archbishop of Buenos Aires, he was named ordinary for those Eastern Catholics in Argentina who lacked a prelate of their own rite.[24] Major Archbishop Sviatoslav Shevchuk has said that Bergoglio understands the liturgy, rites, and spirituality of his Greek Catholic Church and always “took care of our Church in Argentina” as ordinary for Eastern Catholics during his time as Archbishop of Buenos Aires.[43]

In 2000, Bergoglio was the only church official to reconcile with Jerónimo Podestá, a former bishop who had been suspended as a priest after opposing the Argentine Revolution military dictatorship in 1972. He defended Podestá’s wife from Vatican attacks on their marriage.[54][55][56] That same year, Bergoglio said the Argentine Catholic Church needed “to put on garments of public penance for the sins committed during the years of the dictatorship” in the 1970s, during the Dirty War.[57]

Bergoglio made it his custom to celebrate the Holy Thursday ritual washing of feet in places such as jails, hospitals, retirement homes or slums.[58] In 2007, just two days after Benedict XVI issued new rules for using the liturgical forms that preceded the Second Vatican Council, Cardinal Bergoglio was one of the first bishops in the world to respond by instituting a Tridentine Mass in Buenos Aires.[59][60] It was celebrated weekly.[61]

On 8 November 2005, Bergoglio was elected president of the Argentine Episcopal Conference for a three-year term (2005–08).[62] He was reelected to another three-year term on 11 November 2008.[63] He remained a member of that commission’s permanent governing body, president of its committee for the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, and a member of its liturgy committee for the care of shrines.[24] While head of the Argentine Catholic bishops’ conference, Bergoglio issued a collective apology for his church’s failure to protect people from the Junta during the Dirty War.[64] When he turned 75 in December 2011, Bergoglio submitted his resignation as Archbishop of Buenos Aires to Pope Benedict XVI as required by canon law.[33] Still, as he had no coadjutor archbishop, he stayed in office, waiting for an eventual replacement appointed by the Vatican.[65]

Cardinal (2001–13)

At the consistory of 21 February 2001, Archbishop Bergoglio was created a cardinal by Pope John Paul II with the title of cardinal-priest of San Roberto Bellarmino, a church served by Jesuits and named for one. When he traveled to Rome for the ceremony, he and his sister María Elena visited the village in northern Italy where their father was born.[11] As cardinal, Bergoglio was appointed to five administrative positions in the Roman Curia. He was a member of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, the Congregation for the Clergy, the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, the Pontifical Council for the Family and the Commission for Latin America. Later that year, when Cardinal Edward Egan returned to New York following the September 11 attacks, Bergoglio replaced him as relator (recording secretary) in the Synod of Bishops,[66] and, according to the Catholic Herald, created “a favourable impression as a man open to communion and dialogue”.[67][68]

Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio in 2008

Cardinal Bergoglio became known for personal humility, doctrinal conservatism, and a commitment to social justice.[69] A simple lifestyle contributed to his reputation for humility. He lived in a small apartment, rather than in the elegant bishop’s residence in the suburb of Olivos. He took public transportation and cooked his own meals.[70] He limited his time in Rome to “lightning visits”.[71] He was known to be devoted to St. Therese of Lisieux, and he enclosed a small picture of her in the letters he wrote, calling her “a great missionary saint”.[72]

After Pope John Paul II died on 2 April 2005, Bergoglio attended his funeral and was considered one of the papabile for succession to the papacy.[73] He participated as a cardinal elector in the 2005 papal conclave that elected Pope Benedict XVI. In the National Catholic Reporter, John L. Allen, Jr. reported that Bergoglio was a frontrunner in the 2005 conclave.[69][74] In September 2005, the Italian magazine Limes published claims that Bergoglio had been the runner-up and main challenger to Cardinal Ratzinger at that conclave and that he had received 40 votes in the third ballot, but fell back to 26 at the fourth and decisive ballot.[75][76] The claims were based on a diary purportedly belonging to an anonymous cardinal who had been present at the conclave.[75][77] According to the Italian journalist Andrea Tornielli, this number of votes had no precedent for a Latin American papabile.[77] La Stampa reported that Bergoglio was in close contention with Ratzinger during the election, until he made an emotional plea that the cardinals should not vote for him.[78] According to Tornielli, Bergoglio made this request to prevent the conclave from delaying too much in the election of a pope.[79]

As a cardinal, Bergoglio was associated with Communion and Liberation, a Catholic evangelical lay movement of the type known as associations of the faithful.[69][80] He sometimes made appearances at the annual gathering known as the Rimini Meeting held during the late summer months in Italy.[69] In 2005, Cardinal Bergoglio authorized the request for beatification—the third step towards sainthood—for six members of the Pallottine community murdered in the San Patricio Church massacre.[81][82] At the same time, Bergoglio ordered an investigation into the murders themselves, which had been widely blamed on the National Reorganization Process, the military junta that ruled Argentina at the time.[82]

Relations with Argentine governments

Dirty War

Bergoglio was the subject of allegations regarding the kidnapping of two Jesuit priests during Argentina’s Dirty War.[83] He feared for the priests’ safety and had tried to change their work prior to their arrest; however, contrary to reports, he never tried to throw them out of the Jesuit order.[84] In 2005, Myriam Bregman, a human rights lawyer, filed a criminal complaint against Bergoglio, as superior in the Society of Jesus of Argentina, accusing him of involvement in the Navy’s kidnapping of the two priests in May 1976.[85] The lawyer’s complaint did not specify the nature of Bergoglio’s alleged involvement, and Bergoglio’s spokesman flatly denied the allegations. The lawsuit was ultimately dismissed.[83] The priests, Orlando Yorio and Franz Jalics, had been tortured,[86] but found alive five months later, drugged and semi-naked. Yorio accused Bergoglio of effectively handing them over to the death squads by declining to tell the authorities that he endorsed their work. Yorio, who died in 2000, said in a 1999 interview that he believed that Bergoglio did nothing “to free us, in fact just the opposite”.[87] Jalics initially refused to discuss the complaint after moving into seclusion in a German monastery.[88] However, two days after the election of Pope Francis, Jalics issued a statement confirming the kidnapping and attributing the cause to a former lay colleague who became a guerrilla, was captured, and named Yorio and Jalics when interrogated.[89] The following week, Jalics issued a second, clarifying statement: “It is wrong to assert that our capture took place at the initiative of Father Bergoglio … the fact is, Orlando Yorio and I were not denounced by Father Bergoglio.”[90][91]

Bergoglio told his authorized biographer, Sergio Rubin, that after the priests’ imprisonment, he worked behind the scenes for their release; Bergoglio’s intercession with dictator Jorge Rafael Videla on their behalf may have saved their lives.[92] Bergoglio also told Rubin that he had often sheltered people from the dictatorship on church property, and once gave his own identity papers to a man who looked like him, so he could flee Argentina.[86] The interview with Rubin, reflected in the biography El jesuita, is the only time Bergoglio has spoken to the press about those events.[93] Alicia Oliveira, a former Argentine judge, has also reported that Bergoglio helped people flee Argentina during the rule of the junta.[94] Since Francis became Pope, Gonzalo Mosca[95] and José Caravias[96] have related to journalists accounts of how Bergoglio helped them flee the Argentine dictatorship.

Oliveira described the future Pope as “anguished” and “very critical of the dictatorship” during the Dirty War.[97] Oliveira met with him at the time and urged Bergoglio to speak out—he told her that “he couldn’t. That it wasn’t an easy thing to do.”[87] Artist and human rights activist Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, the 1980 Nobel Peace Prize laureate, said: “Perhaps he didn’t have the courage of other priests, but he never collaborated with the dictatorship … Bergoglio was no accomplice of the dictatorship.”[98][99] Graciela Fernández Meijide, member of the Permanent Assembly for Human Rights, also said that there was no proof linking Bergoglio with the dictatorship. She told to the Clarín newspaper: “There is no information and Justice couldn’t prove it. I was in the APDH during all the dictatorship years and I received hundreds of testimonies. Bergoglio was never mentioned. It was the same in the CONADEP. Nobody mentioned him as instigator or as anything.”[100] Ricardo Lorenzetti, President of the Argentine Supreme Court, also has said that Bergoglio is “completely innocent” of the accusations.[101] Historian Uki Goñi pointed that, during the early 1976, the military junta still had a good image among society, and that the scale of the political repression was not known until much later; Bergoglio would have had little reason to suspect that the detention of Yorio and Jalics could end up in their deaths.[102]

When Bergoglio became Pope, an alleged photo of him giving the sacramental bread to dictator Jorge Rafael Videla became viral in social networks. It has also been used by the newspaper Página/12.[103] The photo was soon proved to be false. It was revealed that the priest, whose face is not visible in the photo, was Carlos Berón de Astrada. The photo was taken at the church “Pequeña Obra de la Divina Providencia Don Orione” in 1990, not during the Dirty War, and after Videla’s presidential pardon. The photo was produced by the agency AFP and it was initially published by the Crónica newspaper.[104]

Fernando de la Rúa

Fernando de la Rúa replaced Carlos Menem as president of Argentina in 1999. As an archbishop, Bergoglio celebrated the annual Mass at the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral on the First National Government holiday, 25 May. In 2000, Bergoglio criticized the perceived apathy of society.[105] Argentina faced an economic depression at the time, and the Church criticized the fiscal austerity of the government, which increased poverty. De la Rúa asked the Church to promote a dialogue between the leaders of economic and political sectors to find a solution for the crisis. He claims that he talked with Bergoglio and proposed to take part in the meeting, but Bergoglio would have told him that the meeting was cancelled because of a misunderstanding by De la Rúa’s assistant, who may have declined the president’s assistance. Bishop Jorge Casaretto considers it unlikely, as De la Rúa only made the request in newspaper interviews, but never made a formal request to the Church.[106]

The Justicialist Party won the 2001 elections and got the majority in the Congress, and appointed Ramón Puerta as president of the Senate. As vice president Carlos Álvarez resigned shortly before, this left an opposing party second in the order of precedence. Bergoglio asked for an interview with Puerta, and had a positive impression of him. Puerta told him that the Justicialist party was not plotting to oust De la Rúa, and promised to help the president promote the laws that may be required.[107]

During police repression of the riots of December 2001, he contacted the Ministry of the Interior and asked that the police distinguish rioters engaged in acts of vandalism from peaceful protesters.[108]

Kirchners

Pope Francis with Argentine president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.

When Bergoglio celebrated Mass at the Cathedral for the 2004 First National Government holiday, President Néstor Kirchner attended and heard Bergoglio request more political dialogue, reject intolerance, and criticize exhibitionism and strident announcements.[109] Kirchner celebrated the national day elsewhere the following year and the Mass in the Cathedral was suspended.[110] In 2006, Bergoglio helped the fellow Jesuit Joaquín Piña to win the elections in the Misiones Province and prevent an amendment of the local constitution that would allow indefinite re-elections. Kirchner intended to use that project to start similar amendments at other provinces, and eventually to the national constitution.[111] Kirchner considered Bergoglio as a political rival to the day he died in October 2010.[112] Bergoglio’s relations with Kirchner’s widow and successor, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, have been similarly tense. In 2008, Bergoglio called for national reconciliation during disturbances in the country’s agricultural regions, which the government interpreted as a support for anti-government demonstrators.[112] The campaign to enact same-sex marriage legislation was a particularly tense period in their relations.[112]

When Bergoglio was elected Pope, the initial reactions were mixed. Most of the Argentine society cheered it, but the pro-government newspaper Página/12 published renewed allegations about the Dirty War, and the president of the National Library described a global conspiracy theory. The president took more than an hour to congratulate him, and only did so in a passing reference within a routine speech. However, due to the Pope’s popularity in Argentina, Cristina Kirchner made what the political analyst Claudio Fantini called a “Copernican shift” in her relation with him and fully embraced the Francis phenomenon.[113] On the day before his inauguration as pope, Bergoglio, now Francis, had a private meeting with Kirchner. They exchanged gifts and lunched together. This was the new pope’s first meeting with a head of state, and there was speculation that the two were mending their relations.[114][115] Página/12 removed their controversial articles about Bergoglio, written by Horacio Verbitsky, from their web page, as a result of this change.[116]

Ecumenism with other Christians

In a notable interview with La Stampa, Pope Francis emphasized his commitment to ecumenism, stating: “For me, ecumenism is a priority. Today, we have the ecumenism of blood. In some countries they kill Christians because they wear a cross or have a Bible, and before killing them they don’t ask if they’re Anglicans, Lutherans, Catholics or Orthodox. The blood is mixed.”[117][118] During the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity, Pope Francis addressed the attendees of the John 17 Movement gathering opining that “Division is the work of the Father of Lies” and that he “knows that Christians are disciples of Christ: that they are one, that they are brothers! He doesn’t care if they are Evangelicals, or Orthodox, Lutherans, Catholics or Apostolic…he doesn’t care! They are Christians. And that blood (of martyrdom) unites. Today, dear brothers and sisters, we are living an ‘ecumenism of blood’. This must encourage us to do what we are doing today: to pray, to dialogue together, to shorten the distance between us, to strengthen our bonds of brotherhood.”[119][120] During the 2016 Octave of Christian Unity, Pope Francis “asked forgiveness for the way Catholics had treated other Christian believers over the years, and also invited Catholics to pardon those who had persecuted them.”[121][122][123]

Eastern Orthodoxy

Pope Francis meeting with Patriarch Bartholomew I in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre during his 2014 pilgrimage to the Holy Land

Bergoglio is recognized for his efforts “to further close the nearly 1,000-year estrangement with the Orthodox Churches“.[124] Antoni Sevruk, rector of the Russian Orthodox Church of Saint Catherine the Great Martyr in Rome, said that Bergoglio “often visited Orthodox services in the Russian Orthodox Annunciation Cathedral in Buenos Aires” and is known as an advocate on behalf of the Orthodox Church in dealing with Argentina’s government.[125]

Bergoglio’s positive relationship with the Eastern Orthodox churches is reflected in the fact that Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople attended his installation.[126] This is the first time since the Great Schism of 1054 that the Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, a position considered first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Church organization, has attended a papal installation.[127] Orthodox leaders state that Bartholomew’s decision to attend the ceremony shows that the relationship between the Orthodox and Catholic Churches is a priority of his, but they also note that Francis’ “well-documented work for social justice and his insistence that globalization is detrimental to the poor” may have created a “renewed opportunity” for the two Church communities to “work collectively on issues of mutual concern”.[126][d]

On 12 February 2016, Pope Francis and Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, head of the largest Eastern Orthodox church, met in Havana, Cuba, issuing the Joint Declaration of Pope Francis and Patriarch Kirill, calling for restored Christian unity between the two churches. This was reported as the first such high-level meeting between the two churches since the Great Schism of 1054.[129]

Anglicanism

Gregory Venables, Anglican Bishop of Argentina and former Primate of the Anglican Church of the Southern Cone of America, said that Cardinal Bergoglio had told him very clearly that the personal ordinariates established within the Catholic Church for groups of former Anglicans was “quite unnecessary” and that the Catholic Church needed Anglicans as Anglicans. A spokesman for the ordinariates said the words were those of Venables, not the Pope.[130] Pope Francis met for the first time the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, when he visited the Vatican, on 14 June 2013. The Roman Pontiff said that they both shared the same concerns for social justice, peace and the promotion of Christian values, in matters like marriage.[131] The second meeting took place at the Vatican, on 16 June 2014, with Pope Francis and Justin Welby recommitting themselves to work against modern slavery and human trafficking.[132] Pope Francis has expressed his support for the Anglican realignment, sending through his personal friend, Gregory Venables, a message to the Archbishop Foley Beach of the Anglican Church in North America, a newly formed church outside of the Anglican Communion and not officially recognized by the Archbishop of Canterbury, with his “personal greetings and congratulations as he leads his church in the very important job of revival” and asking Venables to embrace him on his behalf. It was presented during Archbishop Beach’s enthronement, which took place at the Church of the Apostles in Atlanta, Georgia, on 9 October 2014.[133]

Lutheranism

Cardinal Bergoglio frequently recommended his personal friend Manuel Acuña, a Lutheran pastor, to perform exorcisms on individuals in whom there were signs of demonic possession.[134] Mark Hanson, then presiding bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), greeted the news of Bergoglio’s election with a public statement that praised his work with Lutherans in Argentina.[135]

Evangelicalism

Evangelical Christian leaders, including Argentine Luis Palau, welcomed the news of Bergoglio’s election as Pope based on his relations with Evangelical Protestants, noting that Bergoglio’s financial manager for the Archdiocese of Buenos Aires was an Evangelical Christian whom Bergoglio refers to as a friend.[136] Palau recounted how Bergoglio would not only relax and “drink mate” with that friend, but would also read the Bible and pray with him, based on what Bergoglio called a relationship of friendship and trust.[136] Palau described Bergoglio’s approach to relationships with Evangelicals as one of “building bridges and showing respect, knowing the differences, but majoring on what we can agree on: on the divinity of Jesus, his virgin birth, his resurrection, the second coming.”[136] As a result of Bergoglio’s election, Palau predicted that “tensions will be eased.”[136]

Juan Pablo Bongarrá, president of the Argentine Bible Society, recounted that Bergoglio not only met with Evangelicals and prayed with them, he also asked them to pray for him.[137] Bongarrá noted that Bergoglio would frequently end a conversation with the request, “Pastor, pray for me.”[137] Additionally, Bongarrá told the story of a weekly worship meeting of charismatic pastors in Buenos Aires, which Bergoglio attended: “He mounted the platform and called for pastors to pray for him. He knelt in front of nearly 6,000 people, and [the Protestant leaders there] laid hands and prayed.”[137]

Other Evangelical Christian leaders agreed that Bergoglio’s relationships in Argentina made him “situated to better understand Protestantism” than had his predecessor Pope Benedict, “who often referred to Protestantism as a ‘sect’ of Christianity”.[138] Noting that the divide between Catholicism and Protestantism is often present among members of the same families in Argentina, and is therefore an extremely important human issue, Evangelical author Chris Castaldo said that Francis could set the tone for more compassionate conversations among families about the differences between Protestantism and Catholicism.[138]

Interfaith dialogue

Pope Francis in Bethlehem, Palestine, 25 May 2014

Bergoglio has written about his commitment to open and respectful interfaith dialogue as a way for all parties engaged in that dialogue to learn from one another.[139] In the 2011 book that records his conversations with Rabbi Abraham Skorka, On Heaven and Earth, Bergoglio said:

Dialogue is born from an attitude of respect for the other person, from a conviction that the other person has something good to say. It assumes that there is room in the heart for the person’s point of view, opinion, and proposal. Dialogue entails a cordial reception, not a prior condemnation. In order to dialogue it is necessary to know how to lower the defenses, open the doors of the house, and offer human warmth.[139]

Religious leaders in Buenos Aires have mentioned that Bergoglio promoted interfaith ceremonies at the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral.[140] For example, in November 2012 he brought leaders of the Jewish, Muslim, Evangelical, and Orthodox Christian faiths together to pray for a peaceful solution to the Middle East conflicts.[140] Rabbi Alejandro Avruj praised Bergoglio’s interest in interfaith dialogue and his commitment to mend religious divisions.[140]

Shortly after his election, the pope called for more interreligious dialogue as a way of “building bridges” and establishing “true links of friendship between all people”.[141] He added that it was crucial “to intensify outreach to nonbelievers, so that the differences which divide and hurt us may never prevail”.[141] He said that his title of “pontiff” means “builder of bridges”, and that it was his wish that “the dialogue between us should help to build bridges connecting all people, in such a way that everyone can see in the other not an enemy, not a rival, but a brother or sister to be welcomed and embraced.”[141]

On 24 May 2014, Pope Francis arrived in Jordan, at the start of a tour of the Middle East, “aiming to boost ties with Muslims and Jews as well as easing an age-old rift within Christianity”.[142]

In a 2016 survey, Francis was viewed favourably by almost two thirds of Jews, as well as majorities of Protestants and the irreligious; minorities of Buddhists and Muslims had favourable views of him.[143]

Judaism

Francis praying at the Western Wall in Jerusalem on his 2014 visit to the Holy Land

Bergoglio has close ties to the Jewish community of Argentina, and attended Rosh Hashanah (Jewish new year) services in 2007 at a synagogue in Buenos Aires. He told the Jewish congregation during his visit that he went to the synagogue to examine his heart, “like a pilgrim, together with you, my elder brothers”.[144] After the 1994 AMIA bombing of a Jewish Community Center that killed 85 people, Bergoglio was the first public figure to sign a petition condemning the attack and calling for justice. Jewish community leaders around the world noted that his words and actions “showed solidarity with the Jewish community” in the aftermath of this attack.[144]

A former head of the World Jewish Congress, Israel Singer, reported that he worked with Bergoglio in the early 2000s, distributing aid to the poor as part of a joint Jewish–Catholic program called “Tzedaká“. Singer noted that he was impressed with Bergoglio’s modesty, remembering that “if everyone sat in chairs with handles [arms], he would sit in the one without.”[144] Bergoglio also co-hosted a Kristallnacht memorial ceremony at the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral in 2012,[144] and joined a group of clerics from a number of different religions to light candles in a 2012 synagogue ceremony on the occasion of the Jewish festival of Hanukkah.[145]

Pope Francis blessed the cornerstone for the building of the museum devoted to wartime Polish rescuers of Jews which is being built in the Polish village of Markowa; where the family of Józef and Wiktoria Ulma, who are now Servants of God as the Vatican is studying their cause for sainthood, were shot by the Germans for hiding their Jewish neighbors.[146]

Abraham Skorka, the rector of the Latin-American Rabbinical Seminary in Buenos Aires, and Bergoglio published their conversations on religious and philosophical subjects as Sobre el cielo y la tierra (On Heaven and Earth).[147] An editorial in Israel‘s Jerusalem Post notes that “Unlike John Paul II, who as a child had positive memories of the Jews of his native Poland but due to the Holocaust had no Jewish community to interact with in Poland as an adult, Pope Francis has maintained a sustained and very positive relationship with a living, breathing [Jewish] community in Buenos Aires.”[147]

One of the pope’s first official actions was writing a letter to Rabbi Riccardo Di Segni, the Chief Rabbi of Rome, inviting him to the papal installation and sharing his hope of collaboration between the Catholic and Jewish communities.[148] Addressing representatives of Jewish organizations and communities, Francis said that, “due to our common roots [a] Christian cannot be anti-Semitic!”[149]

Islam

Muslim leaders in Buenos Aires welcomed the news of Bergoglio’s election as pope, noting that he “always showed himself as a friend of the Islamic community”, and a person whose position is “pro-dialogue”.[150] They praised Bergoglio’s close ties with Muslim groups and noted his comments when Pope Benedict’s 2006 Regensburg lecture was interpreted by many as denigrating Islam. According to them, Bergoglio immediately distanced himself from Benedict’s language and said that statements which provoked outrage with Muslims would “serve to destroy in 20 seconds the careful construction of a relationship with Islam that Pope John Paul II built over the last 20 years.”[151]

Bergoglio visited both a mosque and an Islamic school in Argentina; visits that the Director for the Diffusion of Islam, Sheik Mohsen Ali, called actions that strengthened the relationship between the Catholic and Islamic communities.[150] Sumer Noufouri, Secretary General of the Islamic Center of the Argentine Republic (CIRA), added that for Muslims, Bergoglio’s past actions make his election as pope a cause of “joy and expectation of strengthening dialogue between religions”.[150] Noufouri said that the relationship between CIRA and Bergoglio over the course of a decade had helped to build up Christian–Muslim dialogue in a way that was “really significant in the history of monotheistic relations in Argentina”.[150]

Ahmed el-Tayeb, Grand Imam of al-Azhar and president of Egypt’s Al-Azhar University, sent congratulations after the pope’s election.[152] Al-Tayeb had “broken off relations with the Vatican” during Benedict XVI’s time as pope; his message of congratulations also included the request that “Islam asks for respect from the new pontiff”.[152]

Shortly after his election, in a meeting with ambassadors from the 180 countries accredited with the Holy See, Pope Francis called for more interreligious dialogue—”particularly with Islam”.[141] He also expressed gratitude that “so many civil and religious leaders from the Islamic world” had attended his installation Mass.[141] An editorial in the Saudi Arabian paper Saudi Gazette strongly welcomed the pope’s call for increased interfaith dialogue, stressing that while the pope was “reiterating a position he has always maintained”, his public call as pope for increased dialogue with Islam “comes as a breath of fresh air at a time when much of the Western world is experiencing a nasty outbreak of Islamophobia“.[153]

In 2016, Pope Francis met with Ahmed el-Tayeb at the Vatican, the first meeting since 2000 between the Grand Imam of al-Azhar and the leader of the world’s Catholics.[154]

Attitudes about non-believers

Speaking to journalists and media employees on 16 March 2013, Pope Francis said he would bless them silently, “Given that many of you do not belong to the Catholic Church, and others are not believers.”[155] In his papal address on 20 March, he said the “attempt to eliminate God and the Divine from the horizon of humanity” resulted in violence, but described as well his feelings about nonbelievers: “[W]e also sense our closeness to all those men and women who, although not identifying themselves as followers of any religious tradition, are nonetheless searching for truth, goodness and beauty, the truth, goodness and beauty of God. They are our valued allies in the commitment to defending human dignity, in building a peaceful coexistence between peoples and in safeguarding and caring for creation.”[156][157]

Some atheists expressed hope that Francis would prove to be progressive on issues like poverty and social inequality,[158] while others were more skeptical that he would be “interested in a partnership of equals”.[159] In May 2013, Francis said that all who do good can be redeemed through Jesus, including atheists. Francis stated that God “has redeemed all of us, all of us, with the Blood of Christ: all of us, not just Catholics. Everyone! Even the atheists, Everyone!”[160] Amid the controversy that ensued, Carl E. Olson pointed out that Francis’ words were fundamental Christian teaching dating back to the Apostle Paul[161] and Fr. Dwight Longenecker wrote, “Unfortunately for those who wish to paint Pope Francis as a lovable liberal, in fact, the Pope is simply affirming certain truths that any somewhat knowledgable Catholic will uphold.”[162] A spokesman for the Vatican, Father Thomas Rosica, issued an “explanatory note” that non-Catholics who “know” the Roman Catholic Church but do not convert “cannot be saved”, and only those who “sincerely seek God … can attain eternal salvation”.[163] Hendrik Hertzberg criticised Rosica in the The New Yorker magazine, and speculated that there may be major internal disagreement between supporters and opponents of Vatican II in the Catholic Church.[164]

In September 2013, Francis wrote an open letter to the founder of La Repubblica newspaper, Eugenio Scalfari, stating that non-believers would be forgiven by God if they followed their consciences. Responding to a list of questions published in the paper by Scalfari, who is not a Roman Catholic, Francis wrote: “You ask me if the God of the Christians forgives those who don’t believe and who don’t seek the faith. I start by saying—and this is the fundamental thing—that God’s mercy has no limits if you go to him with a sincere and contrite heart. The issue for those who do not believe in God is to obey their conscience. Sin, even for those who have no faith, exists when people disobey their conscience.”[165]

Papacy (2013–present)

As Cardinal
As Pope
The gold star represents the Virgin Mary, the grape-like plant—the spikenard—is associated with Saint Joseph and the IHS emblem is the symbol of the Jesuits[166][167][168]

Elected at the age of 76, Francis was reported to be healthy and his doctors have stated that his missing lung tissue, removed in his youth, does not have a significant impact on his health.[169] The only concern would be decreased respiratory reserve if he had a respiratory infection.[170] In the past, one attack of sciatica in 2007 prevented him from attending a consistory and delayed his return to Argentina for several days.[71]

Francis is the first Jesuit pope. This was an unexpected appointment, because of the tense relations between the Society of Jesus and the Holy See.[171] He is also the first from the Americas,[172] and the first from the Southern Hemisphere. Many media reported him as being the first non-European pope, but he is actually the 11th. The previous one was from Syria, Gregory III in 741; 1,272 years earlier. However, although Francis does not have a European nationality, he has a European ethnicity.[173]

As pope, his manner is less formal than that of his predecessors: a style that news coverage has referred to as “no frills,” noting that it is “his common touch and accessibility that is proving the greatest inspiration.”[174] On the night of his election, he took the bus back to his hotel with the cardinals, rather than be driven in the papal car.[175] The next day, he visited Cardinal Jorge María Mejía in the hospital and chatted with patients and staff.[176] At his first media audience, the Friday after his election, the Pope said of Saint Francis of Assisi: “The man who gives us this spirit of peace, the poor man”, and he added “[h]ow I would like a poor Church, and for the poor”.[177]

In addition to his native Spanish, Francis is also conversant in Latin (the official language of the Holy See), he speaks fluent Italian, (the official language of Vatican City and the “everyday language” of the Holy See), German,[178] French,[179] Portuguese,[180] English,[181][182] and he understands the Piedmontese language and some Genoese.[183]

Francis chose not to live in the official papal residence in the Apostolic Palace, but to remain in the Vatican guest house, in a suite in which he can receive visitors and hold meetings. He is the first pope since Pope Pius X to live outside the papal apartments.[184] Francis still appears at the window of the Apostolic Palace for the Sunday Angelus.[185]

Election

Francis appears to the public for the first time as pope, at the balcony of St. Peter’s Basilica, 13 March 2013.

Bergoglio was elected pope on 13 March 2013,[186][187] the second day of the 2013 papal conclave, taking the papal name Francis.[188] Francis was elected on the fifth ballot of the conclave.[189] The Habemus Papam was delivered by Cardinal protodeacon Jean-Louis Tauran.[190] Cardinal Christoph Schönborn later said that Bergoglio was elected following two supernatural signs, one in the conclave and hence confidential, and a Latin-American couple of friends of Schönborn who whispered Bergoglio’s name in Schönborn’s ear; Schönborn commented “if these people say Bergoglio, that’s an indication of the Holy Spirit”.[191]

Instead of accepting his cardinals’ congratulations while seated on the Papal throne, Francis received them standing, reportedly an immediate sign of a changing approach to formalities at the Vatican.[192] During his first appearance as pontiff on the balcony of Saint Peter’s Basilica, he wore a white cassock, not the red, ermine-trimmed mozzetta[192][193] used by the previous Popes.[194] He also wore the same iron pectoral cross that he had worn as Archbishop of Buenos Aires, rather than the gold one worn by his predecessors.[193]

After being elected and choosing his name, his first act was bestowing the Urbi et Orbi blessing to thousands of pilgrims gathered in St. Peter’s Square. Before blessing the crowd, he asked those in St. Peter’s Square to pray for his predecessor, Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI, and for himself.[195]

Pope Francis held his Papal inauguration on 19 March 2013 in St. Peter’s Square in the Vatican. He celebrated Mass in the presence of various political and religious leaders from around the world.[196] In his homily Pope Francis focused on the Solemnity of Saint Joseph, the liturgical day on which the Mass was celebrated.[197]

Name

Francis among the people at St. Peter’s Square.

At his first audience on 16 March 2013, Francis told journalists that he had chosen the name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi, and had done so because he was especially concerned for the well-being of the poor.[198][199][200] He explained that, as it was becoming clear during the conclave voting that he would be elected the new bishop of Rome, the Brazilian Cardinal Cláudio Hummes had embraced him and whispered, “Don’t forget the poor”, which had made Bergoglio think of the saint.[201][202] Bergoglio had previously expressed his admiration for St. Francis, explaining that “He brought to Christianity an idea of poverty against the luxury, pride, vanity of the civil and ecclesiastical powers of the time. He changed history.”[203]

This is the first time that a pope has been named Francis. On the day of his election, the Vatican clarified that his official papal name was “Francis”, not “Francis I”, i.e. no regnal number is used for him. A Vatican spokesman said that the name would become Francis I if and when there is a Francis II.[199][204] It is the first time since Pope Lando‘s 913–914 reign that a serving pope holds a name not used by a predecessor.[e]

Francis also said that some cardinal-electors had jokingly suggested to him that he should choose either “Adrian”, since Pope Adrian VI had been a reformer of the church, or “Clement” to settle the score with Pope Clement XIV, who had suppressed the Jesuit order.[206][207] In February 2014, it was reported that Bergoglio, had he been elected in 2005, would have chosen the pontifical name of “John XXIV” in honor of Pope John XXIII. It was said that he told Cardinal Francesco Marchisano: “John, I would have called myself John, like the Good Pope; I would have been completely inspired by him”.[208]

Curia

Inauguration of Pope Francis, 19 March 2013

On 16 March 2013, Pope Francis asked all those in senior positions of the Roman Curia to provisionally continue in office.[209] He named Alfred Xuereb as his personal secretary.[210] On 6 April he named José Rodríguez Carballo as secretary for the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, a position that had been vacant for several months.[211] Francis abolished the bonuses paid to Vatican employees upon the election of a new pope, amounting to several million Euros, opting instead to donate the money to charity.[212] He also abolished the €25,000 annual bonus paid to the cardinals serving on the Board of Supervisors for the Vatican bank.[213]

On 13 April 2013, he named eight cardinals to a new Council of Cardinal Advisers to advise him on revising the organizational structure of the Roman Curia. The group included several known as critics of Vatican operations and only one member of the Curia.[214] They are Giuseppe Bertello, president of the Vatican City State governorate; Francisco Javier Errazuriz Ossa from Chile; Oswald Gracias from India; Reinhard Marx from Germany; Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya from the Democratic Republic of the Congo; George Pell from Australia; Seán O’Malley from the United States; and Oscar Andres Rodriguez Maradiaga from Honduras. He appointed Bishop Marcello Semeraro secretary for the group and scheduled its first meeting for 1–3 October.[215]

Early issues

Map indicating countries visited by Francis as pope, as of June 2016

In March 2013, 21 British Catholic peers and Members of Parliament from all parties asked Francis to allow married men in Great Britain to be ordained as priests, keeping celibacy as the rule for bishops. They asked it on the grounds that it would be anomalous that married Anglican priests can be received into the Catholic Church and ordained as priests, by means of either the Pastoral Provision of 20 June 1980 or the 2009 Anglican ordinariate, but married Catholic men cannot do the same.[216]

Fouad Twal, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, included a call in his 2013 Easter homily for the Pope to visit Jerusalem.[217] Louis Raphael I, the Chaldean Catholic Patriarch, asked the Pope to visit the “embattled Christian community” in Iraq.[218]

On the first Holy Thursday following his election, Francis washed and kissed the feet of ten male and two female juvenile offenders, not all Catholic, aged from 14 to 21, imprisoned at Rome’s Casal del Marmo detention facility, telling them the ritual of foot washing is a sign that he is at their service.[219] This was the first time that a pope had included women in this ritual; although he had already done so when he was archbishop.[219] One of the male and one of the female offenders was a Muslim.[219][220]

On 31 March 2013 Francis used his first Easter homily to make a plea for peace throughout the world, specifically mentioning the Middle East, Africa, and North and South Korea.[221] He also spoke out against those who give in to “easy gain” in a world filled with greed, and made a plea for humanity to become a better guardian of creation by protecting the environment.[221] He said that “[w]e ask the risen Jesus, who turns death into life, to change hatred into love, vengeance into forgiveness, war into peace.”[222] Although the Vatican had prepared greetings in 65 languages, Francis chose not to read them.[182] According to the Vatican, the pope “at least for now, feels at ease using Italian, the everyday language of the Holy See”.[223]

In 2013, Francis initially reaffirmed the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith‘s program to reform the U.S. Leadership Conference of Women Religious,[224] initiated under his predecessor, Pope Benedict XVI. The New York Times reported that the Vatican had formed the opinion in 2012 that the sisters’ group was tinged with feminist influences, focused too much on ending social and economic injustice and not enough on stopping abortion, and permitted speakers at its meetings who questioned church doctrine.[225][226] However, in April 2015 the investigation was brought to a close. The timing of the closure may have anticipated a visit by Francis to the U.S. in September 2015.[227]

On 12 May, Francis carried out his first canonizations of candidates approved for sainthood during the reign of Benedict XVI: the first Colombian saint, Laura of Saint Catherine of Siena, the second female Mexican saint, Maria Guadalupe Garcia Zavala, both of the 20th century, and the 813 15th-century Martyrs of Otranto. He said: “While we venerate the martyrs of Otranto, ask God to support the many Christians who still suffer from violence and give them the courage and fate and respond to evil with goodness.” He also commented on abortion, saying legislation should be introduced to “protect all human beings from the first moment of their existence.”[228]

Consultation with Catholic laity

A February 2014 survey by World Values Survey cited in The Washington Post and Time shows how the unity Pope Francis had created could be challenged. Although views about Francis personally were favorable, many Catholics disagreed with at least some of his teachings. The survey found that members of the Roman Catholic Church are deeply divided over abortion, artificial contraception, divorce, the ordination of women, and married priests.[229][230] In the same month Pope Francis asked parishes to provide answers to an official questionnaire[231] described as a “much broader consultation than just a survey”[232] regarding opinions among the laity. He continued to assert Catholic doctrine, in less dramatic tone than his recent predecessors, who maintained that the Catholic Church is not a democracy of popular opinion.[233]

Linda Woodhead of Lancaster University wrote of the survey Francis initiated, “it’s not a survey in any sense that a social scientist would recognize.” Woodhead said that many ordinary Catholics would have difficulty understanding theological jargon there. Nonetheless, she suspected the survey might be influential.[234]

The Catholic Church in England and Wales as of April 2014 had refused to publish results of this survey; a Church spokesman said a senior Vatican official had expressly asked for summaries to remain confidential, and that orders had come from the Pope that the information should not be made public until after October. This disappointed many reformers who hoped the laity would be more involved in decision-making. Some other Roman Catholic churches, for example in Germany and Austria, published summaries of the responses to the survey, which showed a wide gap between Church teaching and the behavior of ordinary Catholics.[232]

In a column he wrote for the Vatican’s semi-official newspaper L’Osservatore Romano, the head Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, US Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke, who has a long-standing reputation as one of the church’s most vocal conservative hard-liners, said that Pope Francis opposed both abortion and gay marriage.[235] The Vatican’s chief spokesman, Father Federico Lombardi, also noted in the Vatican Press Office during the 2014 consistory meetings that Pope Francis and Cardinal Walter Kasper would not change or redefine any dogmas pertaining to Church theology on doctrinal matters.[236]

Institute for the Works of Religion

Wax statue at Musée Grévin, Paris.

In the first months of Francis’ papacy, the Institute for the Works of Religion, informally known as the Vatican Bank, said that it would become more transparent in its financial dealings[237] There had long been allegations of corruption and money laundering connected with the bank.[238][239] Francis appointed a commission to advise him about reform of the Bank,[238][239] and the finance consulting firm Promontory Financial Group was assigned to carry out a comprehensive investigation of all customer contacts of the bank on these facts.[240] Because of this affair the Promoter of Justice at the Vatican Tribunal applied a letter rogatory for the first time in the history of the Republic of Italy at the beginning of August 2013.[241] In January 2014 Francis replaced four of the five cardinal overseers of the Vatican Bank, who had been confirmed in their positions in the final days of Benedict XVI’s papacy.[242] Lay experts and clerics were looking into how the bank was run. Ernst von Freyberg was put in charge. Moneyval feels more reform is needed, and Francis may be willing to close the bank if the reforms prove too difficult.[243] There is uncertainty how far reforms can succeed.[244]

Papal documents

On 29 June 2013, Pope Francis published his first encyclical, titled Lumen fidei.[245] It is a collaborative writing with Benedict XVI and talks about faith, complementing Benedict’s previous encyclicals on charity and hope.[246] He published his second one, entitled Laudato si’, on 18 June 2015, concerning care for the planet.[247] On 24 November 2013, he published his apostolic exhortation Evangelii gaudium,[248] with his views on faith and evangelization.[249] On 8 April 2016, Pope Francis published his second apostolic exhortation, Amoris laetitia,[250] remarking on love within the family.

He established two new Secretariats (top-level departments) in the Roman Curia: the Secretariat for the Economy, and the Secretariat for Communications. He reformed the process for declaring matrimonial nullity.[251]

Clerical titles

In January 2014, Pope Francis said that he would appoint fewer monsignors and only assign those honored to the lowest of the three surviving ranks of monsignor, Chaplain of His Holiness. It would be awarded only to diocesan priests at least 65 years old. During his 15 years as Archbishop of Buenos Aires, Pope Francis never sought the title for any of his priests. It is believed he associates it with clerical careerism and hierarchy.[252]

Consistories

At the first consistory of his papacy, held on 22 February 2014, Francis created 19 new cardinals. At the time of their elevation to that rank, 16 of these new cardinals were under eighty years of age and thus eligible to vote in a papal conclave.[253] The new appointees included prelates from South America, Africa, and Asia, including appointees in some of the world’s poorest countries, such as Chibly Langlois from Haiti and Philippe Nakellentuba Ouedraogo from Burkina Faso.[254] The consistory was a rare occasion where Francis and his predecessor, Benedict XVI, appeared together in public.[254]

Benedict XVI also attended the second consistory on 14 February 2015, at which Francis elevated 20 new cardinals, with 15 under the age of eighty and five over the age of eighty. The pope continued his practice of appointing cardinals from the peripheries, such as Charles Maung Bo of Myanmar and Soane Patita Paini Mafi of Tonga.

Year of Mercy

With his April 2015 papal bull of indiction, Misericordiae Vultus (Latin: “The Face of Mercy“), Francis inaugurated a Special Jubilee Year of Mercy, to run from 8 December 2015, Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, to the last Sunday before Advent and the Solemnity of the Feast of Christ the King of the Universe on 20 November 2016.

The Holy Doors of the major basilicas of Rome (including the Great Door of St. Peter’s) were opened, and special “Doors of Mercy” were opened at cathedrals and other major churches around the world, where the faithful can earn indulgences by fulfilling the usual conditions of prayer for the Pope’s intentions, confession, and detachment from sin, and communion.[255] During Lent of that year, special 24-hour penance services will be celebrated, and during the year, special qualified and experienced priests called “Missionaries of Mercy” will be available in every diocese to forgive even severe, special-case sins normally reserved to the Holy See’s Apostolic Penitentiary.[256][257]

Teachings

Francis during the canonization of John XXIII and John Paul II on 27 April 2014

Francis told La Civiltà Cattolica that the church does not need to speak constantly of the issues of abortion, artificial contraception, and homosexuality. He thought that other issues, notably the duty to help those who are poor and marginalized, have been neglected. He added that the church had focused in trivial issues, and as such should not be so prone to condemn, and that priests should be more welcoming. He said the confessional should be used to motivate people to better themselves.[258][259][260][261]

Mercy

Pope Francis said that the most powerful message of Jesus Christ is mercy.[262] His motto, Miserando atque eligendo, is about Jesus’ mercy towards sinners. The phrase is taken from a homily of St. Bede, who commented that Jesus “saw the tax collector and, because he saw him through the eyes of mercy and chose him, he said to him: ‘Follow me'”.[f][49] The motto is a reference to the moment when he found his vocation to the priesthood, at the age of 17. He started a day of student celebrations by going to confession.[263]

As cardinal he thought Christian morality is not a titanic effort of the will, but a response to the mercy of God. It is not a matter of never falling down but of always getting up again. In this sense, he says Christian morality is a revolution.[264] The Gospel reading for the Sunday he was scheduled to give his first public address as pope was on Jesus’ forgiveness of the adulterous woman. This allowed him to discuss the principle that God never wearies of forgiving humans and to stress the importance of never tiring in asking for forgiveness.[265] Because of this emphasis, many have returned to God and to confession, a result which has been called the “Francis effect”.[266][267]

In March 2015, Pope Francis announced that the universal church would celebrate a Jubilee Year from 8 December 2015 to 20 November 2016, dedicated to the theme of God’s mercy. The Vatican announced the pope would perform several acts to demonstrate the theme of God’s mercy.[268]

Faith and evangelization

Pope Francis’ first encyclical, “Lumen Fidei“, was on faith and his first apostolic exhortation, “Evangelii Gaudium“, was on the new evangelization. In both his first homily as pope and in his first address to the cardinals, Francis talked about walking in the presence of Jesus Christ and stressed the church’s mission to announce him. In the audience with the cardinals, he emphasized the concept of “encounter with Jesus”:

Stimulated by the Year of Faith, all together, pastors and faithful, we will make an effort to respond faithfully to the eternal mission: to bring Jesus Christ to humanity, and to lead humanity to an encounter with Jesus Christ: the Way, the Truth, and the Life, truly present in the Church and, at the same time, in every person. This encounter makes us become new men in the mystery of Grace, provoking in our hearts the Christian joy that is a hundredfold that given us by Christ to those who welcome Him into their lives.[269]

In his homily, he stressed that “if we do not profess Jesus Christ, things go wrong. We may become a charitable NGO, but not the Church, the Bride of the Lord.” He went on to teach that “When we do not profess Jesus Christ, we profess the worldliness of the devil… when we profess Christ without the Cross, we are not disciples of the Lord, we are worldly”.[270] The theme of rejecting “spiritual worldliness”, described as a leitmotif of his teachings even before he became pope,[271] was emphasized in his first apostolic exhortation. Understanding this worldliness as “putting oneself at the center”, he said that it is the “greatest danger for the Church, for us, who are in the Church”.[272]

Environment

John Zizioulas, Eastern Orthodox metropolitan of Pergamon, presents the encyclical Laudato si at the Press conference in Rome.

After his election Francis stated, “Here too, it helps me to think of the name of Francis [of Assisi], who teaches us profound respect for the whole of creation and the protection of our environment, which all too often, instead of using for the good, we exploit greedily, to one another’s detriment.”.[273] At the University of Molise he described environmental concerns as a great contemporary challenge and voiced opposition to deforestation. He believes that development should respect what Christians see as creation, and that exploiting the earth is sinful.[274] Francis told the Second International Conference on Nutrition, held in Rome by the Food and Agriculture Organization,[275] that a lack of protection for the ecology may generate problems.[276] Francis plans a meeting with leaders of main religions to increase awareness of the state of the climate.[277]

On 18 June 2015, Pope Francis issued a papal encyclical called Laudato si’ on climate change, care for the environment, and sustainable development.[247] The encyclical, although dated 24 May 2015,[278] was officially made public on 18 June 2015. The encyclical sets apart the basic human needs and appetites. Francis considers that the former are small and non-negotiable, and that the later are potentially unlimited. Although he asks for the use of renewable energy instead of conventional fuels, he thinks that it would not be enough unless society turns down the unlimited appetites of consumerism.[279] This project was opposed by Vatican conservatives, Catholic conservatives, and the US evangelical movement.[280]

As he prepared for the encyclical, Francis sponsored a Pontifical Academy of Sciences summit meeting in April 2015 that focused on the relationships connecting poverty, economic development, and climate change. The meeting included presentations and discussions by scientists, religious leaders, and economists. The United Nations secretary general, Ban Ki-moon, who is urging world leaders to approve a climate-change accord in Paris at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in December, delivered the keynote address.[281]

Poverty

Pope Francis visits a favela in Brazil during the World Youth Day 2013.

At a meeting of Latin American bishops in 2007, Bergoglio said that, despite the economic growth, poverty had not been reduced in the continent, and asked for a better income distribution.[282] On 30 September 2009, Bergoglio spoke at a conference organized by the Argentina City Postgraduate School (EPOCA) at the Alvear Palace Hotel in which he quoted the 1992 “Documento de Santo Domingo”[283] by the Latin American Episcopal Conference, saying “extreme poverty and unjust economic structures that cause great inequalities” are violations of human rights.[284][285] He went on to describe social debt as “immoral, unjust, and illegitimate”.[286]

During a 48-hour public servant strike in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio criticized unequal treatment of the judiciary to poor and rich people.[287] In 2002, during an economic crisis, Bergoglio harshly criticized those in power, saying, “[l]et’s not tolerate the sad spectacle of those who no longer know how to lie and contradict themselves to hold onto their privileges, their rapaciousness, and their ill-earned wealth”.[288] During a May 2010 Mass celebrated by twenty bishops commemorating the Argentina Bicentennial in front of the basilica of Luján, an important Catholic institution and destination of pilgrimage, Bergoglio criticized the reduced social concern over poverty and exhorted Catholics to ask the Virgin of Luján to “take care of our motherland, particularly those who are most forgotten”.[289] In line with the Catholic Church’s efforts to care for AIDS victims, in 2001 he visited a hospice where he washed and kissed the feet of twelve AIDS patients.[282] As Pope Francis he spoke out over the collapse of Rana Plaza garment factory in April 2013, which killed over a thousand people, and condemned the low pay workers received.[290]

Pope Francis urged world leaders to prevent excessive monetary ambitions, which he said had become similar to an idolatry of money, and urged them to provide more welfare aid.[291] Dealing with the Great Recession, the pope criticized unbridled capitalism, considering that it judged human beings purely by their ability to consume goods and made people miserable.[292] He said that social inequality is caused by economic liberalism, and preferred economic systems with a higher intervention by the state.[293] During a May 2014 meeting with U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, Francis called on the United Nations to encourage a better income distribution.[294] In 2015, he declared that the poor and downtrodden of the world should have “sacred rights” of labor, lodging, and land, and denounced the austerity imposed by global financial institutions, referring to it as the “new colonialism”.[295]

Pope Francis deplores modern slavery and, together with a diverse group of leaders from other religions, he signed a declaration promising to inspire action worldwide in an effort to eliminate slavery by 2020. Both Pope Francis and the declaration described slavery as a crime against humanity.[296][297] During his new year mass in 2015 Francis pressed people from all cultures and religions to combat human trafficking and modern slavery according to their responsibilities. Francis said all human beings are brothers and sisters and all have a right to be free.[298]

Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel consulted Francis on 18 May 2013, and later the same day called for more stringent controls of financial markets.[299] Francis has referred many times to the Eurozone crisis that affect Greece and Roman Catholic Southern European nations.[300] Nevertheless, Pope Francis considers that starvation and homeless people are bigger problems than the financial crises.[299] George Haley of New Haven University said that Francis thinks that capitalism should reduce income disparity, and proposed that he used the diplomatic influence of the Vatican to suggest changes in national economies.[301] Rohit Arora is concerned that Francis has not come up with any specific way to solve income inequality and believes if the pope is serious he should do so. Joseph Pastore believes the wealth of the Catholic Church prevents Francis from taking a polarizing position and is unsure how far Francis can reform the Church.[301]

Pope Francis denounced the “autonomy of the marketplace” and “financial speculation” as tyranny in his 84-page apostolic exhortation Evangelii gaudium:

Just as the commandment “Thou shalt not kill” sets a clear limit in order to safeguard the value of human life, today we also have to say “thou shalt not” to an economy of exclusion and inequality. Such an economy kills. … A new tyranny is thus born, invisible and often virtual, which unilaterally and relentlessly imposes its own laws and rules. To all this we can add widespread corruption and self-serving tax evasion, which has taken on worldwide dimensions. The thirst for power and possessions knows no limits.[302][303]

Pope Francis’ views were called Marxist by Rush Limbaugh and other conservatives as a result of his critique of capitalism with absolute market autonomy.[304] Pope Francis responded that “Marxist ideology is wrong. But I have met many Marxists in my life who are good people, so I don’t feel offended … there is nothing in the exhortation that cannot be found in the social doctrine of the church.”[304] He later postulated that the Communists “stole” the flag of Christianity as “the flag of the poor is Christian. Poverty is at the center of the Gospel.”[305]

Liberation theology

Francis opposed the Marxist versions of liberation theology followed by the “‘progressive’ group of [Jesuit] theologians living out in base communities”.[306] As he wrote in the preface to a book on the Catholic Church in Latin America, Una apuesta por America Latina (A Commitment to Latin America) by Guzmán Carriquiry Lecour, the proponents of liberation theology were unable to reformulate it after the collapse of Marxism, and it thus became an anachronism.[307][308][309] His theologian of reference was Juan Carlos Scannone, a fellow Jesuit who had developed a theology centered on the “religious devotion of the common people”.[307][308][310]

Thousands of people welcomed Pope Francis in Guayaquil, Ecuador, 6 July 2015

Historian Roberto Bosca at the Austral University in Buenos Aires says that Pope Francis supported liberation theology’s preferential option for the poor, although “in a nonideological fashion”.[307][311] Before becoming Pope, Cardinal Bergoglio described liberation theology’s preferential option for the poor as part of a long Christian tradition rooted in the Gospels.[312] Bergoglio’s opposition focused on the Montoneros, a terrorist group similar to the European Red Brigades that caused nearly 6,000 deaths. Montoneros claimed that they ascribed to liberation theology, and sought support from the Church. Bosca considers that Bergoglio’s opposition to the liberation theology “wasn’t opposition to liberation theology in itself or the option for the poor”, but opposition to the possible official Catholic support to the Montoneros.[311]

Despite his caution about elements of liberation theology, Francis met with Gustavo Gutiérrez, who is usually regarded as its founder. Gutiérrez had co-authored a book with Gerhard Ludwig Müller, prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. The Vatican’s semiofficial newspaper L’Osservatore Romano said at the time that the liberation theology should not continue to be ignored.[313]

Pope Francis’ beatification of Archbishop of San Salvador Óscar Romero, who was assassinated in March 1980 as he said mass, as a martyr to the church is seen as Francis’ strong support for the poor and those who defend that stance.[314]

Abortion

Throughout his papacy, Pope Francis has been a vocal opponent of both the practice and legality of abortion. In May 2013, Francis unexpectedly participated in Italy’s pro-life march in Rome, asking its participants to protect human life “from the moment of conception”.[315] Also, as the mostly Catholic country of Ireland was preparing legislation to legalize abortion, Francis sent a message to the Irish asking them to protect the lives of both the unborn and vulnerable people.[315] Also in May 2013, during a Wednesday audience Francis officially blessed the pro-life march in Szczecin, Poland, one of Europe’s largest pro-life events and, speaking in Italian, encouraged the Poles to defend the unborn. He maintained that human life should be respected all the way from conception to natural death.[316]

At a September 2013 meeting with Catholic gynecologists, Francis condemned abortion saying that: “Every child that isn’t born, but is unjustly condemned to be aborted, has the face of Jesus Christ, has the face of the Lord.”[317] He advised the gynecologists to invoke the conscience clause to refuse to perform abortions, if so requested.[317]

Francis also thought, as a Cardinal, that the church should support those women who carry on with their pregnancy despite being single parents, rejecting the option to abort. He maintained that, in those cases, priests should not refuse to baptize those children.[318] Pope Francis baptised the baby of an unmarried couple in the Sistine Chapel during Baptism of the Lord Mass at the Vatican.[319]

Ordination of women

Francis has often spoken about the importance of women in the Roman Catholic Church. He considers that they have a special role in spreading the faith to their children and grandchildren. He also considers that, although the first witnesses of the resurrection of Jesus were women, their significance was ignored because, for the Jewish law of the time, only males were credible witnesses.[320][321]

Francis has addressed the subject of the ordination of women a number of times.[322] Francis has ruled out the possibility of female priests, stating that this has been the longtime stance of the Church, and that “John Paul II made the Church’s stance definitive. The door is closed.”[323]

On the other hand, Francis has been noncommittal about whether women should lead more in administration and pastoral activities,[324] While Cardinal Timothy Dolan has suggested that female cardinals are a theoretical possibility because cardinals do not need to be ordained,[325] Francis ruled out female cardinals in December 2013.[325]

Erin Saiz Hanna of the Women’s Ordination Conference has accused Francis of a selective use of evidence. She mentioned that the Pontifical Biblical Commission had once concluded that there were no scriptural or theological problems with ordaining women, and cited the attitude of Jesus towards women and their leadership in the early church. She also suggested that his rejection to the ordination of women may be at odds with his tolerance of gay priests, mentioned in the same interview.[326]

Clergy

Bishop Gabriel Barba and Pope Francis

Francis has criticized the perceived hunger for power of some sectors of the curia, which come at the expense of a proper religious life. He thinks that gossip is a danger to the reputation of people, and that the presence of cliques within organizations is a threat to both the individual and the organization.[327] Francis thinks that priests should be in contact with the people as much as possible and avoid isolation. He also suggests that priests should encourage people to be optimistic.[328] He has been supported by Rome bishops, priests, deacons, and seminarians from the English-speaking world who attended the second international conference of the Confraternities of Catholic Clergy.[329]

In September 2013, Pope Francis approved the excommunication of Australian priest Greg Reynolds, the first during Francis’ papacy. Reynolds was accused of heresy and sacrilegious treatment of the consecrated host. His public preaching contradicting church teaching was also referenced in the letter of excommunication. A letter sent by the Archbishop of Melbourne, Denis Hart, to the priests of his diocese cited Reynolds’ support for the ordination of women and “his public celebration of the Eucharist when he did not hold faculties to act publicly as a priest”. Reynolds said that his support of same-sex marriage was also a factor, though not mentioned.[330]

In response to the Catholic Church sexual abuse cases, Francis created the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors. In the past, priests who committed abuses were removed by bishops, but bishops were rarely held accountable. This tribunal was created to prevent cover-ups of abuse cases; offenders would be dealt with by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.[331] Barbara Blaine, president of the organization Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests, considered that it may not be effective.[332]

Priestly celibacy

As a cardinal, Bergoglio’s views regarding the celibacy of priests were recorded in the book On Heaven and Earth, a record of conversations conducted with a Buenos Aires rabbi.[333] He says that celibacy is a matter of discipline rather than faith, and that tradition and experience would advise to keep it.[26] He noted that the Byzantine, Ukrainian, Russian, and Greek Catholic [sic] Churches allow married men to be ordained priests, but not bishops.[26][g] He said that many of those in Western Catholicism who are pushing for more discussion about the issue do so from a position of pragmatism, based on a loss of manpower.[26] He states that “If, hypothetically, Western Catholicism were to review the issue of celibacy, I think it would do so for cultural reasons (as in the East), not so much as a universal option.”[26] He emphasized that, in the meantime, the rule must be strictly adhered to, and any priest who cannot obey it should leave the ministry.[26] The National Catholic Reporter’s Vatican analyst, Thomas J. Reese, also a Jesuit, praised Bergoglio’s use of conditional language.[333] He said that phrases like “for the moment” and “for now” are “not the kind of qualifications one normally hears when bishops and cardinals discuss celibacy.”[333]

Contraception

The initial reports that Francis considered that the use of methods intended for contraception with the purpose of preventing disease might be permissible[334][335] were disputed by others who said he was “unwaveringly orthodox on matters of sexual morality”.[336] Before becoming Pope he opposed the free distribution of contraceptives when it was introduced by the Kirchner government.[337] Francis emphasized that contraception involves “destruction of the family through the privation of children.”[338][339] At the same time, Francis teaches that “responsible parenthood” is important, and suggested that population experts recommend three children in a family, and added that Christians do not need to breed in excess.[340] Francis encourages natural family planning such as avoiding sexual intercourse when the woman is fertile.[341]

Homosexuality

As bishop and Pope, Francis restated the Church’s principle: that homosexual practice is intrinsically immoral, but that every homosexual person should be treated with respect and love.[342][343] He opposes same-sex marriage, including the 2010 bill to introduce it in Argentina.[344][345] In July 2010, while the law was under consideration, he wrote a letter to Argentina’s cloistered nuns in which he said the Argentine nuclear family could be seriously harmed. He thought that children would face discrimination and lose the development that a father and mother give.[344][346][347]

Let’s not be naive: This is not a simple political fight; it is a destructive proposal to God’s plan. This is not a mere legislative proposal (that’s just its form), but a move by the father of lies that seeks to confuse and deceive the children of God … Let’s look to St. Joseph, Mary, and the Child to ask fervently that they defend the Argentine family in this moment… May they support, defend, and accompany us in this war of God.

After L’Osservatore Romano reported this, several priests expressed their support for the law and one was defrocked.[348] Observers believe that the church’s opposition and Bergoglio’s language worked in favor of the law’s passage and that in response, Catholic officials adopted a more conciliatory tone in later debates on social issues such as parental surrogacy.[349]

Rubin, Bergoglio’s biographer, said that while taking a strong stand against same-sex marriage, Bergoglio raised the possibility in 2010 with his bishops in Argentina that they support the idea of civil unions as a compromise position.[350] According to one news report by The New York Times, a majority of the bishops voted to overrule him.[350] Miguel Woites, the director of the Catholic News Agency of Argentina, denied that Bergoglio ever made such a proposal,[351] but additional sources, including two Argentine journalists and two senior officials of the Argentine bishops conference, supported Rubin’s account.[352]

In an interview on 28 July 2013, when discussing homosexuals (both in general and their place in the clergy) and answering a question as to whether there was a “gay lobby” in the Vatican, the pontiff said, “If someone is gay and is searching for the Lord and has good will, then who am I to judge him? The Catechism of the Catholic Church explains this in a beautiful way, saying … wait a moment, how does it say it … it says: “no one should marginalize these people for this, they must be integrated into society”.”[353] According to two gay rights activists, Marcelo Márquez and Andrés Albertsen, Bergoglio expressed support for the spiritual needs of “homosexual people” and willingness to support “measured actions” on their behalf in private conversations with them.[354] These remarks have been seen as an encouraging change of tone from the papacy, so much so that the American LGBT magazine The Advocate named Pope Francis their Person of the Year for 2013.[355]

On 5 January 2014, the Vatican denied that the Pontiff supports gay unions.[356] In response to various Italian tabloid articles released in the media, Vatican spokesman Father Federico Lombardi cited that various media misinterpretations are “paradoxical” and manipulative in misusing Pope Francis’ words noted in response to children growing up in non-traditional families.[357] The New York Times considers that Bergoglio may have supported gay unions in Argentina only as a negotiated compromise, but that his context as a Pope is very different.[350] In 2015, Pope Francis declared that “the family is threatened by growing efforts on the part of some to redefine the very institution of marriage” and suggested that same-sex marriage “disfigures God’s plan for creation”.[358][359] The Pontiff supported the Slovak referendum on banning gay marriage and gay adoption in an address to St. Peter’s Square, stating: “I wish to express my appreciation to the entire Slovak church, encouraging everyone to continue their efforts in defense of the family, the vital cell of society.”[360] In October 2015, priest and Vatican theologian Priest Krzysztof Charamsa was stripped of his posts after announcing he was homosexual and denouncing the Church for “persecuting” and causing “immeasurable suffering” to homosexuals.[361][362]

Religious persecution

Francis condemned persecution of religious minorities in Iraq including some Christian victims. He did not mention the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant specifically but is believed to have referred to it. Francis mentioned children dying of hunger and thirst, kidnapped women, massacres, and violence of all kinds. In the opinion of Francis war and hatred cannot be carried out in the name of God. Francis thanked brave people bringing aid to those driven from their homes. He confidently expects an effective solution to stop those crimes and return the area to the rule of law[363][364] and, in a break with Vatican tradition, supports the use of force to stop Islamic militants from attacking religious minorities in Iraq.[365][366][367]

Capital punishment and life imprisonment

Pope Francis proposed the abolition of both capital punishment and life imprisonment in a meeting with representatives of the International Association of Penal Law. He thinks that states should find another way to protect people from aggression, and includes deaths caused by police brutality and extrajudicial punishment. He accepted that the Church accepts it when there are no other options to protect the people, but considers that nowadays such cases may be minimal or even nonexistent. He also thinks that life imprisonment, recently removed from the Vatican penal code, is just a variation of the death penalty.[368]

Role in international diplomacy

Pope Francis with U.S. President Barack Obama, 27 March 2014

Pope Francis shaking hands with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov, behind Russian President Vladimir Putin, 10 June 2015

Pope Francis played a key role in the talks toward restoring full diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Cuba. The restoration was jointly announced by U.S. President Barack Obama and Cuban President Raúl Castro on Wednesday, 17 December 2014. The headline in the Los Angeles Times on 19 December 2014 was “Bridge to Cuba via Vatican,” with the further lead “In a rare and crucial role, Pope Francis helped keep U.S. talks with Havana on track and guided final deal.”[369] The pope was a behind the scenes broker of the agreement, taking the role following Obama’s request during his visit to the pope in March 2014. The success of the negotiations was credited to Francis because “as a religious leader with the confidence of both sides, he was able to convince the Obama and Castro administrations that the other side would live up to the deal”.[370] When the pope visited the United States in September 2015, he stopped prior to it to Cuba. “The plan comes amid a breakthrough for which Francis has received much credit.”[371] The Cuba visit “seals that accomplishment, in which he served as a bridge between two erstwhile enemies”.[372] According to one expert on religion in Latin America, Mario Paredes, the pope’s visit to Cuba is consistent with his aim to promote an understanding of the role of the Cuban Revolution and that of the Catholic Church. When Francis was archbishop of Buenos Aires he authored a text entitled “Dialogues Between John Paul II and Fidel Castro.”[372] John Paul was the first pope to visit Cuba. In May 2015, the pope met with Cuban leader Raúl Castro. After the meeting in Vatican City on 10 May 2015, Castro said that he is considering returning to the Roman Catholic Church.[373] He said in a televised news conference, “I read all the speeches of the pope, his commentaries, and if the pope continues this way, I will go back to praying and go back to the [Roman Catholic] church. I am not joking.”[374] Castro said that when the pope comes, “I promise to go to all his Masses and with satisfaction”.[375]

In December 2014, Pope Francis declined to meet with the 14th Dalai Lama, the 1989 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. According to a New York Times report, a Vatican spokesman said “Pope Francis obviously holds the Dalai Lama in very high regard, but he will not be meeting any of the Nobel [Peace] laureates.”[376] The last meeting between the Dalai Lama and a pope was with Benedict XVI in 2006.[377] In November 2015, Pope Francis met with that year’s Nobel Peace Prize laureates from Tunisia.[378]

In May 2014, his visit to the state of Israel was heavily publicized. However, protests against his visit resulted in fires in both the Dormition Abbey and the Church of the Nativity.

In May 2015, Pope Francis welcomed Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas to the Vatican. Several media outlets reported that Francis praised Abbas as “an angel of peace”, though his actual words were the following: “The angel of peace destroys the evil spirit of war. I thought about you: may you be an angel of peace.”[379] The Vatican signed a treaty recognizing the state of Palestine.[380] The Vatican issued statements concerning the hope that the peace talks could resume between Israel and Palestine. Abbas’ visit was on the occasion of the canonization of two Palestinian nuns.[381]

On 6 June 2015, Pope Francis visited Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina. He urged peace during his time in the religiously diverse city, known as the “Jerusalem of Europe”.[382]

On 25 September 2015, Pope Francis addressed the United Nations in New York City.[383]

On 16 April 2016, he visited, together with the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew and the Archbishop Ieronimos II of Athens, the Mòria camp in the Greek island of Lesbos, to call the attention of the world to the refugee issue. There the three Christian leaders signed a joint declaration[384]

Public image

A graffiti image of Pope Francis in Saint-Romain-au-Mont-d’Or, France.

Popular mainstream media frequently portray Pope Francis either as a progressive papal reformer or with liberal, moderate values.[385] The Vatican has claimed that Western news outlets often seek to portray his message with a less-doctrinal tone of papacy, in hopes of extrapolating his words to convey a more merciful and tolerant message.[386][387] In the news media, both faithful and non-believers often refer to a “honeymoon” phase in which the Pope has changed the tone on Catholic doctrines and supposedly initiated ecclesiastical reform in the Vatican.[388][389][390]

In December 2013, both Time and The Advocate magazines named the Pontiff as their “Person of the Year” in praise and hopes of reforming the Roman Curia while hoping to change the Catholic Church’s doctrine on various controversial issues. In addition, Esquire magazine named him as the “Best-dressed man” for 2013 for his simpler vestments often in tune with a modern simplistic design on sartorial fashion.[391] Rolling Stone magazine followed in January 2014 by making the Pontiff their featured front cover.[392][393] Fortune magazine also ranked Pope Francis as number one in their list of 50 greatest leaders.[394] On 5 November 2014, he was ranked by Forbes as the fourth most powerful person in the world and was the only non-political figure in the top ranking.[395]

In March 2013, a new song was dedicated to Francis and released in Brazilian Portuguese, European Portuguese, and Italian, titled Come Puoi (“How You Can”).[174] Also in March, Pablo Buera, the mayor of La Plata, Argentina, announced that the city had renamed a section of a street leading up to a local cathedral Papa Francisco.[396] There are already efforts to name other streets after him, as well as a school where he studied as a child.[396] A proposal to create a commemorative coin as a tribute to Pope Francis was made in Argentina’s lower house on 28 November 2013. On the coins it would read, “Tribute from the Argentine People to Pope Francis.” beneath his face.[397] As of May 2013, sales of papal souvenirs, a sign of popularity, were up.[300]

Pope Francis presided over his first joint public wedding ceremony in a Nuptial Mass for 20 couples from the Archdiocese of Rome on 14 September 2014, just a few weeks before the start of 5–19 October Extraordinary Synod of Bishops on the Family.[398][h]

To date, there are two biographical films about Pope Francis: Call Me Francesco (Italy, 2015), starring Rodrigo de la Serna, and Francis: Pray for me (Argentina, 2015), starring Darío Grandinetti.[400]

In 2016, while in Mexico Pope Francis made international headlines for criticizing U.S. Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump.[401][402][403][404][405][406][407][408] Francis said of Donald Trump, “A person who thinks only about building walls, wherever they may be, and not building bridges, is not Christian. This is not the gospel.” Trump responded saying “For a religious leader to question a person’s faith is disgraceful.[409]

On March 19, 2016, Pope Francis became the first Pope to create an